Bio Exam 2 - The uptake of small nutrient molecules by an...

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Microvilli Liver Bile Anus Colon Cecum Appendix Feces Rectum Absorption - The uptake of small nutrient molecules by an organism’s own body; the third main stage of food processing, following digestion. Acclimatization- Physiological adjustment to a change in an environmental factor. Acid chyme - A mixture of recently swallowed food and gastric juice. Action potential - A rapid change in the membrane potential of an excitable cell, caused by stimulus-triggered, selective opening and closing of voltage-sensitive gates in sodium and potassium ion channels. Adipose - A connective tissue that insulates the body and serves as a fuel reserve; contains fat-storing cells called adipose cells. AIDS- The name of the late stages of HIV infection, defined by a specified reduction of T cells and the appearance of characteristic secondary infections. Aldosterone - An adrenal hormone that acts on the distal tubules of the kidney to stimulate the reabsorption of sodium (Na + ) and the passive flow of water from the filtrate. Alimentary cavity - A digestive tract consisting of a tube running between a mouth and an anus. Alveoli- One of the dead-end, multilobed air sacs that constitute the gas exchange surface of the lungs. Ammonia- A small, very toxic molecule made up of three hydrogen atoms and one nitrogen atom; produced by nitrogen fixation and as a metabolic waste product of protein and nucleic acid metabolism. Antibodies- A protein secreted by plasma cells (differentiated B cells) that binds to a particular antigen and marks it for elimination; also called immunoglobulin. All antibody molecules have the same Y-shaped structure and in their monomer form consist of two identical heavy chains and two identical light chains joined by disulfide bridges. Antidiuretic hormone- (ADH) A hormone produced in the hypothalamus and released from the posterior pituitary. It promotes water rentention by the kidneys as part of an elaborate feedback scheme that helps regulate the osmolarity of the blood. Antigens- A macromolecule that elicits an immune response by lymphocytes. Anus- Appendix- A small, fingerlike extension of the vertebrate cecum; contains a mass of white blood cells that contribute to immunity. Arteries- A vessel that carries blood away from the heart to organs throughout the body. Arterioles- A vessel that conveys blood between an artery and a capillary bed. Asymmetry- Atrium- A chamber that receives blood returning to the vertebrate heart. Atroventricular node - AV node, a region of specialized muscle tissue between the right atrium and right ventricle. It generates electrical impulses that primarily cause the ventricles to contract. Autonomic nervous system- A subdivision of the motor nervous system of vertebrates that regulates the internal environment; consists of the sympathetic, parasympathetic, and enteric divisions. Axons-A typically long extension, or process, from a neuron that carries nerve impulses away
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This test prep was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course BIO 311D taught by Professor Reichler during the Spring '08 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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Bio Exam 2 - The uptake of small nutrient molecules by an...

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