Exam #1 Study Sheet
Definition and chemical basis of life
Requirements of Life:
sexual, asexual reproduction, metabolism, growth
- Bud off identical cell
- Must consume. Derivation of energy from food to fuel cellular
processes. Conversion of energy from one form to another.
- Replicate themselves to form new organic material for new living cells.
The number of cells increases as well as the volume of the cells.
Properties of Life:
order, reproduction, growth and development, energy utilization, response to the
environment, homeostasis, evolutionary adaptation
- Life isn’t random, it’s a highly ordered system
- All organisms must reproduce.
Growth and Development
- Everything grows in a different way.
- All animals consume to fuel their own energy.
Response to Environment
- To survive all organisms must respond to their
- Ability to maintain a balanced internal environment.
Evolutionary Adaptation, Extinction-
All organisms must adapt over time
to environmental conditions. If they fail to adapt, they will become extinct.
Cell Theory, Definition of a cell
- Simplest collection of matter that can live.
- (1839) Never disproved in a scientific experiment, all organisms are
composed of one or more cells, and all cells come from other cells.
Components common to all cells: plasma membrane, DNA, ribosomes
- Encloses the cytoplasm, which keeps all liquid inside of the
cell; regulates the passage of molecules into and out of the cell.
- Hereditary molecule that is passed from one generation to the next; the
blueprint for protein synthesis.
- Site of protein synthesis.
Main cell types: prokaryotes, eukaryotes
- Includes bacteria and archaea; have no nucleus, no membrane-bound
organelles, and DNA is a single circular chromosome
- Includes plants, fungi, animals, and protists. More complex type of
cell has a nucleus, membrane-bound organelles, and more than one linear
chromosomes of DNA.
Chemical Basis of Life