PLS 220 Chapter 7 Summary - Chapter 7 Summary PLS 220 I...

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Chapter 7 Summary - PLS 220 I. Intergovernmental Organizations The Creation of International Organizations (IOs) Why have states chosen to organize themselves collectively? The response is found in liberalism 1. Within the framework of institutions, cooperation is possible Functionalism Simple problems, often with technical (not political) solutions are common starting points for IOs David Mitrany argues that states “bind together those interests which are common, where they are common, and to the extent to which they are common.” They promote building on and expanding the habits of cooperation nurtured by groups of technical experts. Eventually, those habits will spill over into cooperation in political and military affairs. Collective Goods Collective goods are available to all members of the group regardless of individual contributions. The use of collective goods involves activities and choices that are interdependent. Decisions by one states have effects for other states; that is, states can suffer unanticipated negative consequences as a result of actions by others. Garrett Hardin, in The Tragedy of the Commons , proposed several possible pollutions to the tragedy of the commons: 1. Use coercion: force nations and peoples to control the collective goods. 2. Restructure the preferences of states through rewards and punishments. 3. Alter the size of the group. The Roles of Intergovernmental Organizations (IGOs) IGOs contribute to habits of cooperation; through IGOs, states become socialized to regular interactions. Such regular interactions occur between states in the United Nations. Roles: 1. Some establish regularized processes of information gathering, analysis, and surveillance. 2. Some IGOs, such as the World Trade Organization, develop procedures to make rules, settle disputes, and punish those who fail to follow the rules. 3. Other IGOs conduct operational activities that help to resolve major substantive problems 4. IGOs also play key roles in bargaining, serving as arenas for negotiating and developing coalitions. IGOs often spearhead the creation and maintenance of international rules and principles. They establish expectations about their behavior of other states. These are known as international regimes. Charters if IGOs incorporate the norms, rules, and decisionmaking processes of regimes. IGOs help to reduce the incentive to cheat and enhance the value of a good reputation. 1. For states, IGOs enlarge the possibilities for foreign policy making and add to the constraints under which states operate and especially implement foreign policy. States join IGOs to use them as instruments of foreign policy. 2. IGOs also constrain states. They set agendas and force governments to make decisions; encourage states to develop processes to facilitate IGO participation, and create norms of behavior with which states must align their policies if they wish to benefit from their membership.
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