PLS 220 Chapter 10 Summary

PLS 220 Chapter 10 Summary - Chapter10SummaryPLS220...

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Chapter 10 Summary - PLS 220 I. Introduction The standardized shipping container is an example of how simple changes can have complex consequences In the twenty-first century, more different kinds of actors than ever participate in international politics The growing importance of non-state actors signifies a significant power shift. These new actors address a great variety of issues. Two of the core issues, security and international political economy, have evolved in new ways: State security is increasingly conceptualized as human security. Economic decisions made by multinational corporations (MNCs) affect national balances of payments and ability of workers to make a living wage. Global communications and the technology revolution undermines the primacy of territorial states. II. Health and Communicable Disease—Protecting Life in the Commons Public health and disease are old issues that have never respected national boundaries. Eradication of diseases has always been a global challenge. The international community was caught unawares by the new realities spawned by globalization. Ebola, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Avian bird flu, and HIV/AIDS outbreaks have been acerbated by increased global mobility. HIV/AIDS as a Transnational Issue AIDS has rapidly become a major health and humanitarian problem with over 3.1 million deaths annually and between 33 and 46 million people living with the disease: 1. AIDS is an economic issue , disproportionately affecting those in their primary productive years, between 15 and 45. 2. AIDS is a social issue , as families are torn apart and children are orphaned. These children are often forced to turn to prostitution or join the military in order to survive. 3. AIDS is a human rights and ethical issue as well as a security issue . In 2000 the UN Security Council identified AIDS as a threat to global security, the first time that health has been so recognized. Many different actors have responded to the AIDS problem, but individual states are key: 1. Uganda, Botswana, and Brazil took initiatives very early on, and each has seen rates of infection decline. 2. South Africa, China, and India have been slow to acknowledging the problem. IGOs took the leadership role at the early stages: 1. The World Health Organization (WHO) took steps to help states create national AIDS programs beginning in 1986. 2. In 1996, the Joint UN Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) was created, which coordinates cooperative projects among numerous UN agencies. 3. The United Nations initiated the practice of convening global AIDS conferences every two years to raise awareness and mobilize responses.
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PLS 220 Chapter 10 Summary - Chapter10SummaryPLS220...

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