Unformatted text preview: Particle Systems
Reeves W.: "Particle Systems -- A Technique for
Modelling a Class of Fuzzy Objets", Computer
Graphics, 17(3), pp. 359-376, 1983
Graphics, CS 551 – Advanced Graphics
Peter Capelluto Particle Systems
Particle Particle systems offer a solution to modeling amorphous, dynamic and fluid objects like clouds, smoke, water, explosions and fire. Representing Objects with Particles
Representing An object is represented as clouds of primitive particles that define its volume rather than by polygons or patches that define its boundary.
A particle system is dynamic, particles changing form and moving with the passage of time.
Object is not deterministic, its shape and form are not completely specified. Instead Basic Model of Particle Systems
4) 5) New particles are generated into the system.
Each new particle is assigned its individual attributes.
Any particles that have existed past their prescribed lifetime are extinguished.
The remaining particles are moved and transformed according to their dynamic attributes.
An image of the particles is rendered in the frame buffer, often using special purpose algorithms. Particle Generation
Particles are generated using processes with an element of randomness.
One way to control the number of particles created is by the particles generated per frame:
Npartsf = MeanPartsf + Rand() X VariancePartsf Another method generates a certain number of particles per screen area:
Npartsf = (MeanPartsSAf + Rand() X VariancePartsSAf) X ScreenArea With this method the number of new particles depends on the screen size of the object. Particle Attributes
Particle Initial position
• InitialSize = MeanSize + Rand() X VarSize Initial color
Lifetime Alias|Wavefront’s Maya Particle Dynamics
A particle’s position is found by simply adding its velocity vector to its position vector. This can be modified by forces such as gravity.
Other attributes can vary over time as well, such as color, transparency and size. These rates of change can be global or they can be stochastic for each particle. Particle Extinction
Particle When generated, given a lifetime in frames.
Lifetime decremented each frame, particle is killed when it reaches zero.
Kill particles that no longer contribute to image (transparency below a certain threshold, etc.). Particle Rendering
Particle Particles can obscure other objects behind them, can be transparent, and can cast shadows on other objects. The objects may be polygons, curved surfaces, or other particles. Particle Rendering
Particle For Star Trek II, Reeves made two assumptions which made things easier for him: • assumed particles wouldn’t intersect other geometry (handled occlusion by compositing) Particles can obscure other objects behind them, can be transparent, and can cast shadows on other objects. The objects may be polygons, curved surfaces, or other particles.
• treated particles as point light sources, each particle contributing a bit to the brightness of a pixel (avoiding hidden surface detection and shadows). However, the particles did not actually cast light on the geometry in the scene; lights had to be added. Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan
Star Particle Hierarchy
Particle system such that particles can themselves be particle systems. The child particle systems can inherit the properties of the parents. Grass
Grass Entire trajectory of a particle over its lifespan is rendered to produce a static image.
Green and dark green colors assigned to the particles which are shaded on the basis of the scene’s light sources.
Each particle becomes a blade of grass. white.sand by Alvy Ray Smith
(he was also working at Lucasfilm) Metaballs
Metaballs Metaballs are spheres that blend together to form surfaces.
By representing particles as metaballs blobby surfaces can be created. Metaballs
Metaballs Soft Bodies
Soft Particle system deforms the surface of a NURBS or polygonal object. chewing gum soft body ...
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