Prehistoric Life Study Guide

Prehistoric Life Study Guide - Prehistoric Life Study Guide...

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Prehistoric Life Study Guide Terms Chapter One: Origin and Chemical Evolution Hypotheses- in terms of the scientific perspective, educated guesses Theories- ideas which explain many interrelated facts Laws- grand theories that have survived many tests Living organism- has a physical form, is capable of growth, reproduces, releases energy from food, eliminates waste, and has a mechanism for the storage and retrieval of information (DNA/RNA) Proteins- chains of amino acids; structural basis of life which make up enzymes (speed up chemical reactions) Carbohydrates- primarily used for energy storage and transfer Fats- energy storage, made up of fatty acids ATP.ADP- molecular storage and transfer of energy within the cell Nucleic acids- include DNA/RNA, store genetic info Chapter Two: Prokaryotes and Simple Eukaryotes Stromatolites- mound like buildups of sediment from Australia dating back to 3.55 billion year ago which appear similar to the stromatolites forming today in Western Australia; made by cyanobacteria (once called "blue-green algae"), the oldest known evidence of life Banded Iron Formations (BIFs) -red bands rich in iron oxides alternate with differently colored bands of unoxidized iron; the atmosphere and oceans were still largely anaerobic, but photosynthetically produced O 2 caused seasonal ("banded") iron oxide Prokaryotic life- plasmids, viruses, and bacteria Cyanobacteria- blue-green algae, contain chlorophyll and stabilize oxygen levels Chloroxybacteria- only Prochloron, contains chlorophyll and forms the chloroplasts of algae and plants Ontogeny- process of development where sexually reproducing organisms originate as a fertilized egg which matures into the sexual adult organisms Protoctista- kingdom includes all eukaryotic single-celled organisms (kelp, red algae, etc); characterized by four primitive features: lack of blastula larvae, lack of embryonic stage of development , lack of complex developmental histories (ontogenies), restricted to aquatic habitats Fungi- kingdom which lacks blastula larvae, embryos, and cilia/flagellae for locomotion; contains molds, yeasts, mushrooms, truffles Plantae- kingdom characterized by making embryos and alternating haploid and diploid generations Animalia- kingdom in which they combine the haploid and diploid generations into a single individual, a male or female; they lack photosynthetic organelles, form an embryo called a blastula, and their sperm cell is much smaller than their egg cell Chapter 3: Fossils and Geologic Time Fossils- any remains of an organism over 10,000 years old Coprolite- fossilized dinosaur shit
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Ichnofossils- trace fossils such as tracks, trails, or burrows Permineralization- process by which fossil wood is commonly crudely replaced with silicon, leaving only traces of its original internal structure Calcium phosphate- makes up fossilized bones and teeth Calcium carbonate- makes up fossilized shells and corals; two forms of calcite (more
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Prehistoric Life Study Guide - Prehistoric Life Study Guide...

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