Prehistoric Life Final Study Guide

Prehistoric Life Final Study Guide - Prehistoric Life Final...

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Prehistoric Life Final Study Guide Origins of dinosaurs: Archosauromorph- has the shape of an archosaur but not all the features, specialized to allow for efficient breathing while running (bipedal parasagittal gait, stiffened torso, muscular diaphragm) Archosaurs- reptile group which contains dinosaurs and parasuchians Dinosauria- wide tibia locked to astragalus and calcaneum (double roller joint), long scapula, sacrum with 3 vertebrae, first appeared in late Triassic Herrerasaurus- plesion, looks like a dinosaur but only has 2 sacral vertebrae Dinosaur Anatomy: Dinosaurs have an elongated crest on humerus (upper arm), hinged ankle, erect posture with legs underneath body Maxilla- upper jaw Mandible- lower jaw Atlas- neck bone, hold up head Axis- neck bone, turns head Scapula- shoulder blade Humerus- upper arm Radius- inner lower arm, connects to thumb Ulna- outer lower arm, connects to elbow Carpals- wrist bones Metacarpals- hands Phalanges- fingers, toes Ilium- upper hip Ischium- hip bone that goes backwards Pubis- hip bone that goes forwards Femur- thigh Tibia- big lower leg bone Fibula- small lower leg bone Calcaneum- heel Tarsals- ankle Metatarsals- feet Dinosaur Biogeography: Pangaea dominated the globe while dinosaurs lived Top half- Laurasia Bottom half- Gorwanaland Middle was huge deserts Pangaea begins breaking up in late Jurassic, in Cretaceous much of it is broken apart but South America and Australia are still attached, etc, so unique species develop Sauropods persist through late Cretaceous only in isolated South America KT Extinction- 3 rd largest extinction, killed all non-bird dinosaurs, all pterosaurs (flying non- birds), ichthyosaurs (large swimming reptiles) Asteroid hit in Yucatan Peninsula, Chicxulub Crater
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Dinosaur Cladogram: Primate Evolution: Primates are descended from insectivores (shrews, hedgehogs, moles) and evolved in the late Cretaceous I. Archonta- tarsal bones specialized for tree life (ankles), pendulous penis a. Plesiadapiformes- flying lemurs b. Chiroptera- bats c. Scandentia- tree shrews d. Primates-binocular vision for judging distance, claws replaced by nails, opposable thumbs, protracted infant care, greater intelligence, clavicle and sternum connected d.i. Lemuriformes- lemurs d.ii. Anthropoidea- monkeys, apes, humans I. Anthropoidea- large canines which hone against premolars, molar-like premolars, broad square molars, protracted infant care a. Platyrrhini (flat nose)- flat nostrils on side of face, retained arboreal habits with long prehensile tails, isolated in central/south America (Old World monkeys) b. Catarrhini (hanging nose)- nostrils open vertically, some have projecting nose like
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This note was uploaded on 01/22/2012 for the course GEOL 159 taught by Professor Carter during the Fall '08 term at UNC.

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Prehistoric Life Final Study Guide - Prehistoric Life Final...

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