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Exam 2 Spring 2011 - ZOOL 3204 Spring 2011 Exam 2 Form 002...

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Unformatted text preview: ZOOL 3204 Spring 2011 Exam 2, Form 002 PLEASE DO NOT START UNTIL TOLD TO DO SO! Once you are told to start, please do the following: 1. On the scan-tron, please write your name and student ID# (CWID) in the appropriate sections. After your student ID#, LEAVE A BLANK SPACE and then fill in your lab section number as follows: 01 = Tuesdays 9:30 05 = Wednesdays 12:30 10 = Thursdays 6:30 02 = Tuesdays 12:30 06 = Wednesdays 2:30 12 = Fridays 8:30 03 = Tuesdays 2:30 07 = Thursdays 9:30 11 = Tuesdays 6:30 08 = Thursdays 12:30 04 = Wednesdays 8:30 09 = Thursdays 2:30 Be sure to fill in all of the corresponding circles. This will allow the TA’s to return your scores in lab. Grades also will be posted on D2L. 2. On the scan-tron, write “3204” for “Course Number”, and for “Sec.”, write the Form # of this exam (“002”). 3. There are a total of 45 regular questions on this exam, and each question is worth 2 points unless noted otherwise (100 points total). There are also 2 extra credit questions, each worth 2 points. 4. If you have a question, please raise your hand and we will come to you. 5. When finished, please turn in the scan—tron TO YOUR LAB TA. You can keep this exam copy. 6. Good Luck! “Whoa! That was a good one! Try It, Hobbs —- just poke his brain right where my finger is." These instructions are given for good reason —- failure to follow them could result in up to a 10 point reduction in your grade. “ . *By taking this exam, you consent to OSU’s Commitment to Academic Integrity: I Will respect OSU’s commitment to academic integrity and uphold the values of honesty and responsibility that preserve our academic community.” Page 1 of 8 1. (4 pts.) Which of the following are TRUE concerning neuron physiology: 1. Fast axonal transport occurs in neurons whether they have myelin sheaths or not @Action potentials are produced when graded potentials meet or exceed the threshold potential at the axon hillock (trigger zone) 3. Neurons with smaller diameters conduct action potentials more slowly than neurons with larger diameters 4. Long—term potentiation occurs in any neuron that gets used frequently ,5’. Synaptic plasticity only occurs during childhood ( ) C a. all of the above are TRUE b. none of the above are TRUE 0. l and 5 are TRUE d. 3, 4, and 5 are TRUE ~' , 2, and-3 are TRUE 2. (4 pts.) Given its anatomy, what do we know about the nervous system cell(s) to the right: a. it is a Purkinje cell b. it is a neuron from the central nervous system c. it is a neuron from the spinal cord d. it is an oligodendrocyte with many, smaller astrocytes @t is a neuron with multiple ‘Schwann cells forming myelin sheaths 3. (4 pts.) Regarding the organisms in the diagrams above: a. “A” has been useful to neurobiology because it produces tetrodotoxin, a Na+ channel blocker b. “C” has been useful to neurobiology because it produces alpha-bungarotoxin, an ACh receptor blocker c. “B” has been useful to neurobiology because of its giant axon @Dall of the ab0ve are TRUE e. none of the above are TRUE Page 2 of 8 4. (4 ts.) Which of the following statements are TRUE concerning Learning & Memory: 1 Memory is the ability to retain and retrieve previously learned information 2 Hormones such as glucocorticoids play a major role in our ability to learn and form memories Learning that occurs after repeated exposure to a single stimulus (e.g., habituation) is known as non- associative learning ,4’? ' There is no apparent upper limit to the amount of information we can retain in short—term memory 5. “Siegel’s chickens” —- the anecdote I mentioned in class — is an example of sensitization a. all of the above are true b. none of the above are true (91,2, and :3 are true d. l, 3, and 4 are true 6. l, 3, 4, and 5 are true 5. (4 pts.) Which of the following statements are TRUE concerning the diagram to the right: a. true nervous systems first appeared in A b. neurons first appeared in C @he cerebral cortex is present in D, E, and F d. all of the above are TRUE e. none of the above are TRUE 6. In the diagram to the right, this is the cerebellum: a.A b.B (CDC ’ d.D e.E 7. In the diagram to the right, this is where the majority of corticospinal tracts cross between the left and right sides of the body (“the pyramids”): a.A b.B c.C d.D «- 8. In the diagram to the right, this structure tends to be larger in females and may result in an increased ability to “multi—task”: a, A " ' c. C d. D e. E 9. Maintenance of body temperature as well as activation of the sympathetic nervous system are two of many functions of the: a. pituitary gland b. cerebellum c. cingulate gyrus d. amygdala mypothalamus Page 3 of 8 10. An individual understands language input but has difficulty producing a meaningful response; this is a symptom of caused by damage to the : @expressive aphasia, Broca’s area b. receptive aphasia, Wernicke’s area c/expressive aphasia, occipital lobe )k receptive aphasia, frontal lobe 11. In the diagram to the right, damage to “B” would most directly impact: ,a( vision )3. sensory input @enotor output /d. taste and smell 12. In the diagram to the right, Phineas Gage had significant damage to this brain region: @AJbB c.C d.D e.E 13. What you are doing in order to read and comprehend this exam is BEST described as: a. proprioception b. sensation .perception d. mechanoreception e. baroreception 14. In the diagram to the right, this sensory receptor type is a neuron with its nerve ending enclosed in connective tissue: a. A @B c. C 15. In the diagram to the right, this sensory receptor type iS'a specialized non-neural cell that‘makesva" .- --- synapse with the primary sensory neuron: a. A b. B @c 16. This neuroglial cell type produces myelin sheaths: a. astrocyte b. Schwann cell c. oligodendrocyte d. both A and B .both B and C 17. Multiple Sclerosis is a pathology that causes breakdown of myelin sheaths: (game ‘ Page 4 of 8 18. In the diagram above, “C” is a(n): a. dendrite b. cell body c. myelin sheath @axon hillo’ck (trigger zone) e. node of Ranvier 19. In the diagram above, this is where action potentials are initiated: a.A b.B QC d.D e.E 20. In the diagram above, this is a node of Ranvier: a.A b.B c.C d.D @E 21. and are the two glial cell types of the peripheral nervous system: a. astrocytes and oligodendrocytes b. oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells @katellite cells and Schwann cells d. satellite cells and oligodendrocytes e. Schwann cells and astrocytes 22. Which of the following is TRUE concerning resting membrane potentials: ,af' only neurons and muscle cells have them . . ,b'.’ they are usually positive (+) ,_ . l .. V . R. . ,6.” they primarily depend upon intracellular vs. extracellular ACh concentrations d. all of the above are TRUE @none of the above are TRUE 23. Regarding the sodium-potassium pump (Na+K+ATPase): a. it is only found on axons (Bjit works by active transport , 0. without it, a single action potential would cause enough ion movement to reverse the concentration gradients of Na+ and K+ d. all of the above e. none of the above 24. Which of the following is TRUE concerning graded potentials: Mtlrey are produced on axons @they can exhibit spatial and temporal summation 0. they are “all-or-none” d. they usually involve the movement of K+ Page 5 of8 25. In the diagram to the right, the event marked by step “6” is primarily caused by: ””4“" {a @potassium (K+) leaving the cell +30 b. potassium (K+) entering the cell 0. sodium (Na+) leaving the cell d. sodium (Na+) entering the cell i 26. In the diagram to the right, the greatest number of Na+ channels are OPEN at: a. ‘62?) @“4” Threshold _____ {QM—— ____--__:;s_____-___--_______ C ((639 d “87) 27. Which of the following is TRUE concerning action potentials: ,ef they can exhibit spatial and temporal summation K they are proportional to stimulus strength 2.’ they are propagated along axons by opening and closing of Ca++ channels 01. all of the above are TRUE @none of the above are TRUE 28. Fast axonal transport is a mechanism for: a. propagating electrical signals along myelinated axons b. propagating electrical signals along unmyelinated axons c. making sure that axons grow to their appropriate targets during development @moving cellular components between the cell body and axon terminal 29. channels are very common along axons, but (synapses): @voltage-gated, ligand—gated b. ligand—gated, voltage—gated c. mechanically-gated, ligand—gated d. voltage-gated, mechanically-gated are very common at axon terminals 30. Which of the following is the correct sequence of events just PRIOR to neurotransmitter release: agraded potential depolarizes-axon-terminal -> exocytosis-of-synaptic vesicles 9 Ca++ entry into cell ' ‘ b. exocytosis of synaptic vesicles 9 action potential depolarizes axon terminal 9 Ca++ entiy into cell c. Ca++ entry into cell 9 graded potential depolarizes axon terminal -> exocytosis of synaptic vesicles d. Ca++ entry into cell 9 action potential depolarizes axon terminal 9 exocytosis of synaptic vesicles @action potential depolarizes axon terminal 9 Ca++ entry into cell 9 exocytosis of synaptic vesicles 31. is a common neurotransmitter in the CNS as well as the PNS: a. GABA b. Carbon monoxide (CO) c. glutamate @cetylcholine (ACh) 32. is when two or more graded potentials from different neurons combine: a. temporal summation @k‘patial summation c. long-term potentiation d. slow-synaptic potentiation Page 6 of 8 ' d. emotion, learning, and memory 33. Which of the following is TRUE concerning long-term pctentiation: ,a( it involves the neurotransmitter acetylcholine @it uses both Na+ channels and Ca++ channels on the post—synaptic cell pf its main function is to weaken synapses that are no longer used (1. all of the above are TRUE e. none of the above are TRUE 34. The diagram to the right depicts a: a. Ca++ channel b. leak channel @Na+ channel d. K+ channel 35. “Saltatory conduction” refers to: @propagation of action potentials along myelinated axons b. propagation of action potentials along unmyelinated axons c. propagation of graded potentials along dendrites (1. none of the above 36. The dura mater, arachnoid mater, and pia mater are the main structures of the: a. cranium b. cerebrospinal fluid @fimeninges d. limbic system e. diencephalon 37. Regarding the blood-brain barrier: a. it does not permit any biomolecules to travel between the CNS and blood supply b. it is produced by oligodendrocytes c. it requires transport proteins for small gases like 02 and C02 @tzone place it is functionally absent is in the hypothalamic—hypophysial portal system 38. The structure of the cell type at right is indicative of a high degree of: @eonvergence b. divergence 0. spatial summation d. temporal summation 39. The brainstem primarily is important for: @firegulating autonomic functions b. coordinating movement 0. controlling movement 40. Somatosensory tracts are neurons that carry sensory input to the brain whereas corticospinal tracts are neurons that carry commands to motor neurons: @firue b. false Page 7 of8 41, This structure connects the left and right hemispheres of the brain: a. cingulate gyrus b. basal nuclei c. hippocampus @orpus callosum 42. Which of the following tend to be larger in females than in males: a. brain regions associated with connectivity (e.g., corpus callosum) b. brain regions associated with language (e.g., temporal gyrus) 0. brain surface area (“gyrification”) ' @3141] of the above tend to be larger in females e. none of the above tend to be larger in females 43. demonstrates that spatial orientation is an important feature in our ability to detect and recognize faces: @The Thatcher Effect b. Prosopagnosia c. Receptive aphasia d. The story of Phineas Gage 44. The is involved with sensory integration and filtering whereas the plays a major role in maintenance of homeostasis: a. hypothalamus, thyroid gland b. limbic system, cerebellum @thalam’us, hypothalamus d. thalamus, cerebellum 45. Which of the following is NOT part of the diencephalon: a. limbic system b. basal nuclei 0. medulla oblongata d. all of the above are part of the diencephalon @none of the above are part of the diencephalon EXTRA CREDIT 46. The diagram to the right depicts: a. melatonin b. ATP 0. cholesterol (1. testosterone @qyroid hormone 47. Which one of the following articles mentioned in class and posted to D2L is a review of studies that document differences in brain structure between heterosexuals and homosexuals: a. Gelbard-Sagiv et al., 2008 b. Nelson, 2005 c. Thornton, 2001 d. Patisaul, 2010 @waab, 2008 \ Page 8 of 8 ...
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