Exam 4 Spring 2011

Exam 4 Spring 2011 - ZOOL 3204 Spring 2011 Exam 4, Form 001...

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Unformatted text preview: ZOOL 3204 Spring 2011 Exam 4, Form 001 PLEASE DO NOT START UNTIL TOLD TO DO SO! Once you are told to start, please do the following: 1. On the scan—tron, please write your name and student ID# (CWID):in the appropriate sections. After your student ID#, LEAVE A BLANK SPACE and then fill in your lab section number as follows: 01 = Tuesdays 9:30 05 = Wednesdays 12:30 10 = Thursdays 6:30 02 = Tuesdays 12:30 06 = Wednesdays 2:30 12 = Fridays 8:30 03 = Tuesdays 2:30 07 = Thursdays 9:30 11 = Tuesdays 6:30 08 = Thursdays 12:30 04 = Wednesdays 8:30 09 = Thursdays 2:30 Be sure to fill in all of the corresponding circles. This will allow the TA’s to return your scores in lab. Grades also will be posted on D2L. 2. On the scan-tron, write “3204” for “Course Number”, and for “Sec”, write the Form # of this exam (‘6 9,). 3. There are a total of 45 regular questions on this exam, and each question is worth 2 points unless noted otherwise (100 points total). There are also 5 extra credit questions, each worth 2 points. 4. If you have a question, please raise your hand and we will come to you. 5. When finished, please turn in the scan-tron TO YOUR LAB TA. You can keep this exam copy. My BUTT HURTS ll! 6. Good Luck! These instructions are given for good reason — failure to follow them could result in up to a 10 point reduction in your grade. *By taking this exam, you consent to OSU’S Commitment to Academic Integrity: “I will respect OSU’s commitment to academic integrity and uphold the values of honesty and responsibility that preserve our academic community.” Page 1 of9 Medulla oblongala To SA node /" ma» To AV node \ To ventricular myocardium Spinal cord W X 1. (4 pts.) In the diagram above, assume that in the absence of any nervous system or endocrine input (e.g., if you i cut the connection with “A” and “B”), the heart rate is 85 beats/minute. However, under normal resting conditions with all nervous and endocrine input intact, heart rate turns out to he 70 beats/minute. Based on these data, which of the following must be TRUE: 3’“?“A” must be modulating heart rate R . “B” must be modulating heart rate (cf “A” and the adrenal sympathetic pathway must be modulating heart rate d. “B” and the adrenal Sympathetic pathway must be modulating heart rate e. “A” and “B” must be simultaneously modulating heart rate 2. (4 pts.) Which of the following are TRUE in the diagram at right: ~ 1. Filtration only occurs in “A” e 2. “A” is the Bowman’s capsule with the glomerulus inside » 3. Water reabsorption occurs in “C” 4. Secretion of solutes occurs in “D” V “E” is the distal tubule a. all of the above are TRUE b. none of the above are TRUE "1:31, 2, and 3 are TRUE 1' d. 2, 3, and 4 are TRUE e. 3, 4, and 5 are TRUE Page 2 of9 3. (4 pts.) Which of the following statements are TRUE regarding blood and blood vessels: 2’1. arteries, arterioles, and veins all contain smooth muscle ,x' 2. capillaries are the only vessels that possess endothelial cells J 3. oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, white blood cells, and glucose all can be found in the blood J 4. platelets are cell fragments that separate off of megakaryocytes 5. red blood cells contain hemoglobin and mitochondria but no nuclei a. all of the above are TRUE b. none of the above are TRUE id, 3, and 4 are TRUE ‘ ” ' d. l, 3, and 5 are TRUE e. 1, 2, and 3 are TRUE 4. (4 pts.) The diagram to the right depicts an action potential in a cardiac pacemaker cell. If that cardiac pacemaker cell is stimulated by epinephrine, which of the following would occur: a: no change would occur; epinephrine does not influence pacemaker cells 3’" n A I I . 5b. the “ acemaker otential” would Increase 1n slo e 1.e., become more: xoj P I vertical), causmg more frequent act10n potentials e. the “ acemaker otential” would decrease in 510 e causin more ix 9 frequent act1on potentials d. the “pacemaker potential” would increase in slope, causing less frequent Pacema.ker Adm? action potentials patent!“ pctema’ /e: the “pacemaker potential” would decrease in slope, causing less frequent action potentials ' Membrane potential (mV) Time —-—> 5. (4 pts.) Which of the following statements are TRUE regarding the regulation of pulmonary ventilation: / l. The medulla oblongata controls breathing rate and the pons modulates breathing rate 2. The automatic nature of breathing may be due unstable membrane potentials, or “respiratory pacemakers” 3. C02, 02, and pH levels are monitored by the sensory nervous system and can affect breathing rate 4. Skeletal muscles innervated by the somatic (motor) nervous system cause inspiration and expiration FaLilll of the above are TRUE b. none of the above are TRUE c. l, 2, and 3 are TRUE ' r, d. 2, 3, and 4 are TRUE 6. In the diagram to the right, this is the: A cayivena cava - b. aorta c. pulmonary arter d. pulmonary vein 7. In the diagram to the right, this is the: a. left atrium b. left ventricle 0. right atrium @right ventricle Page 3 of9 8. Concerning cardiac muscle physiology: a. contraction is typically synchronized by the AV node ’bjcardiac muscle cells communicate v1a gap Junctions 0. cardiac muscle cells do not possess sarcomeres d. all of the above e, none of the above 9. This structure prevents the passive transfer of depolarization from the atria to the ventricles: "591mm skeleton \ '. SA node 0. AV node d. QRS complex 10. Myocardial infarctions (heart attacks): @are due to an inadequate oxygen supply to cardiac muscle 7‘ b. usually can be corrected with a defibrillator c. typically cause immediate loss of consciousness d. all of the above e. none of the above 11. Which of the following would tend to increase cardiac output: a. an increase in stroke volume b. a decrease in parasympathetic stimulation 0. an increase in epinephrine all of the above would tend to increase cardiac output e. none of the above would tend to increase cardiac output ’ ' PX = Permeability to ion X 0% , : Q—t PK and tpca E + N O I O l ‘ i" 12. The diagram to the right depicts: a. a skeletal muscle action potential "Ea cardiac muscle action potential 0. electrical activity in the SA node of the heart d. electrical activity in the Purkinje fibers of the heart ['9 o I “w _ wkandtaca .60 _ Membrane potential (mV) .80 _ .100 - 13, Which of the following would increase stroke volume in the heart: . . . . 0 100 200 300 ayim Increase lll epinephrme —-Time (msec)—-———> b. an increase in parasympathetic stimulation 0. stimulation by the vagus nerve 14. Concerning arrythmias, which of the following is true: a. tachycardia is a loss of the synchronization of cardiac muscle cell contraction k1? bradycardia is an abnormally fast heartbeat effibrillation is an abnormally slow heartbeat all of the above are true “egnone of the above are true 15. Regarding blood circulation: a. blood in the vena cava is ~ 75% saturated with 02 b. blood in the aorta is ~ 98% saturated with OZ cxblood in the left ventricle of the heart is relatively more oxygenated than blood in the right ventricle dill of the above 6. none Ofthe above Page 4 of 9 16. This individual was one of the first to demonstrate that blood circulates (rather than being constantly produced by the heart, never to return) within the vessels of the cardiovascular system: flplbn al-Nafis ‘ b. Claudius Galen c. Claude Bernard Damage to d. all of the above demonstrated this , mm blood vessel; 2 c . ' .11» ' ‘ 17. These vessels experience the highest blood _ I fly H I p " i . pressures in the circulatory system: ' Collagen 1 rTlssuefaclor; _ exposed V exposed , a. veins ’ y . " ' b. capillarIes fifty/lgégfsa '\ c. venules (adhere and“ ’ “ a. . .rflfalsi‘a _ t' 3 8 9 \Qarteri es 3mm? x, 18. In the diagram to the right, “A” is and “B” is : a. the coagulation cascade, vasoconstriction b. vasoconstriction, dissolving of the clot c. thrombm production, plasmin production T i C” .‘ f d Wags? 1‘ "‘- . . . '~ emporary .‘" 9 {re p Bree, mlvzwmagnwmx de/asoconstriction, the coagulation cascade hemostasls ) 2 pl'a'teletplug ; . . {WI ‘W'WWT‘? 19. The difference between AB+ and AB— blood is: {73;}; ggmggg }/ Z Ii a. the presence or absence of antibodies to A and B i tissuerepair j proteins the presence or absence of the Rh factor 7' 0. related to Whether the person is an infant or an adult d. related to whether the individual has had a transfusion or not 20. is when a feature that evolved under one set of conditions gets used for additional or different purposes: a. adaptation b. retrofitting Qcooption 5 d. reassignment 21. This blood type is considered the “universal recipient”: a. O— b. O+ cfl. A+ i‘oABJr '- 22. In the photomicrograph to the right, this is a(n): a. artery ' @vein ‘ c. nerve d. capillary 23. Which of the following tissues are NOT found in the structure identified in “22”: a. endothelium b. smooth muscle {@adipose tissue 1 d. all of the above are found in the structure identified in “22” Page 5 of9 24. One of the many pieces of evidence for the evolution of the blood clotting system (as opposed to its so—called “irreducible complexity”) is the fact that sea cucumbers: a. have a clotting system that completely lacks the extrinsic pathway 9 by do not have a clotting response but still have the gene for and produce fibrinogen Efiossess a simple, two—step clotting response that involves tissue factor and clot formation d. have a clotting system that completely lacks the intrinsic pathway (#325. The condition in the photo to the right is caused by: a. bacterial invasion of the epidermis b. viral invasion of the blood vessels c. bacterial invasion of the nervous system I ’Qnone of the above“ 26. Regarding immune system anatomy: a. the thymus gland and the bone marrow are the main producers of immune system cells (e. g, leukocytes) b. immune system cells can be found in many locations including lymph nodes, blood, and body tissues c. the lymphatic system collects fluid and solutes that filter out of the capillaries and returns them to cardiovascular A circulation at the left and right thoracic lymph ducts " C1le of the above e. none of the above g7. Immunodeficiencies: gnclude conditions like AIDS: b. include conditions like diabetes c. include allergic reactions d. all of the above 6. none of the above X 28. Concerning leukocytes: :Qneutrophils are phagocytes found in the blood b. macrophages produce antibodies 0. lymphocytes produce histamine and are mainly involved in inflammatory responses d. all of the above 6. none of the above 29. The action of ‘ is the main reason that the secondary immune response is stronger than the primary immune response: a. mast cells ~"E>memory cells c. platelets d. neutrophils 30. Concerning antibodies: a. lgA’s can be transferred through breast milk b. lgG’s are the most common type their physical structure includes two antigen binding sites tryall of the above e. none of the above 31. The “sweaty t—shirt study” by Wedekind et al. 1995 found that women tended to rate as attractive the t—shirts worn by men who had lVH-IC genes most similar to their own: a. true bpfalse Page 6 of 9 \ 32. Suppose you are traveling to a distant country and worried about developing pathogenitis. You go to your physician and receive a vaccine for pathogenitis that contains a disabled form of the virus that causes the illness. Your immune system responds appropriately and you are protected. This is an example of: a, innate immunity b. passive immunity gyctive immunity . none of the above 33. Pleural fluid: a. is secreted by leukocytes causes adhesion of the lungs to the thoracic cavity wall: {@circulates in the lymphatic system d. circulates in the central nervous system 34. Concerning respiratory system anatomy: a. the trachea has the largest diameter of any respiratory tract passageway b. the alveoli are the main sites of gas exchange c. the bronchioles have much more cross-sectional area than the trachea EJall of the above" e. none of the above 35. In the diagram to the right, this is a macrOphage: a. A b. B 36. In the diagram to the right, this cell type permits gas exchange: = b.B c.C 37. In the diagram to the right, this cell type produces a protein gthat may be an important signal for birth: a. A B " c. C gut ~': a (tow 38. In which of the following physiological processes are the kidneys involved: la))production of eiythropoietin b. participation in the pathway for calcitriol production 0. production of renin for regulation of aldosterone d. all of the above ‘ 6. none of the above 3?. An animal that can produce urine with an osmolarity of 3500 mOsM or greater: at. probably lives in an environment where water is scarce ' b. probably lives in an environment where water is plentiful c. all animals can produce urine with this osmolarity d. no animal can produce urine with this osmolarity L. 40. Which of the following statements are TRUE concerning the regulation of urine osmolarity: The descending loop of Henle is permeable to solutes but not to water “b. Increasing systemic aldosterone would primarily cause increased water reabsorption Ex Increasing systemic vasopressin would primarily cause increased sodium reabsorption all of the above are TRUE fl "egnone of the above are TRUE; Page 7 of 9 41. In the diagram to the right: @fitep 2 depicts production of the filtration fraction- b. step 3 depicts secretion c. step 5 demonstrates that the majority of fluid that enters the nephron stays in the nephron d. all of the above e. none of the above 42. Which of the following can stimulate vasopressin 0 release: {@decreasing atrial stretch b. increasing osmolarity c. decreasing blood pressure d. all of the above 43. Which of the following is TRUE regarding micturition: iafi}mooth muscle in the bladder is stimulated to contract by the parasympathetic nervous system" b. contraction of the external sphincter of the bladder is accomplished by the sympathetic nervous system c. stretch receptors activate when the bladder gets full, leading to external sphincter contraction d. all of the above are TRUE e. none of the above are TRUE Lumen N -' r ' of dlstal ‘ s I ' tubule i il'mmxazm l v l - - - . . l f - z 44. The dlagram to the rlght deplcts the mechanism of action of: 2; g H . ‘ RNA 1 ' ~ v i a. erythropoietin g r “6,33%” find-‘1’» _ . a , i . . .\ H t1 ' , ,. a b. angiotensm x 9‘??? 5V” “m I c. vasopressin g « ,, ,g d? ldosterone , ,. .. Q? l ~ n: Proteins-intimate _. ¥;__—-—'f"e)'dsting channétS'and pum f (secreted H ‘ . "A, M 1} Na‘reabsofbed‘??? I 1. ' .- 45. The diagram to the right depicts: ,“"\ -a‘.)countercurrent exchange b. filtration c. excretion d. all of the above 6. none of the above Page 8 of9 EXTRA CREDIT 46. Which of the following statements are TRUE; refer to the diagram above: 1. a stimulus in receptive field “B” can sometimes be detected by all three primary sensory neurons 2. lateral inhibition by neuron “B” will increase sensory acuity in the brain 3. convergence is shown between the primary and secondary sensory neurons 4. if the receptive fields shown above were smaller, sensory acuity would be lower (i.e., less) ifajall of the above are TRUE b. none of the above are TRUE 0. 1, 2, and 3 are TRUE d. l and 3 are TRUE e. l and 4 are TRUE 47. In Stanford University’s Class Day Lecture 2009, Dr. Robert Sapolsky was introduced by: a. his father bg his daughter Stanford’s Academic Provost d. the Senior Class President e. the student responsible for nominating Sapolsky to give the lecture 48. In Sapolsky’s wide-ranging lecture, which of the following were discussed: a. blood meals in vampire bats b. remote killing by drone bombers ck the “Wellesley Effect” 1d,)all of the above were discussed e. none of the above were discussed 49. One specific example that was discussed involved the relationship between and anticipation of reward: a. stress ~ibi.’,».§clop.auninc c. cortisol d. sex (male or female) 50. At the very end of his talk, Sapolsky discussed: {Qembracing the moral imperative to make a difference especially when it seems impossible to do so b. laugh, cry, sleep, love, and do no harm 0. funny things to say when Stanford starts calling the soon-to—be graduates asking for money d. all of the above were mentioned 6. none of the above were mentioned Page 9 of 9 ...
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Exam 4 Spring 2011 - ZOOL 3204 Spring 2011 Exam 4, Form 001...

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