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1_history_navigation-1 - Oceanography:History andNavigation...

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Oceanography: History  and Navigation GS222 Lecture 1
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Overview- this lecture Who were the first people to explore and map the  oceans? How did early explorers determine their location  (latitude, longitude) on the globe? When did modern oceanography begin?  Who was  responsible?
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I. Earliest explorers ‘Really Old Men and the Sea’… Bones of marine fish in  Stone Age settlements  (~40,000 BCE) Cave paintings suggest  primitive boats in use by  6000 BCE Evidence for  Homo erectus   on Indonesian Island  (>750,000 years old),  required crossing deep  channel 
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II. Early ocean-going exploration Minoan civilization considered first to use boats (~3000 BCE)  trade, transport, defense, and conquest dominated Aegean occurred primarily in Mediterranean and Polynesia Mediterranean Phoenicians next great sea power (~1100 to 850 BCE) based in what is now Israel, Syria, and Lebanon voyaged throughout Med., as far north as British Isles Greek mathematician Pythagoras deduced earth was round (~550  BCE)
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Herodutus The World rendered in ~450 BCE, one of the first high quality maps
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Early ocean-going exploration Greek geographer Pythaes (4 th  century BCE)  developed method for determining latitude using Polaris  explored British Isles, Norway, perhaps Iceland occurred primarily in Mediterranean and Polynesia Mediterranean (cont). Greek geographer Ptolemy (~150 CE) excellent north-south (latitude) accuracy basis for most maps until ~1500 CE! east-west proportions (longitude) distorted due to lack of chronometer used incorrect value for earth’s circumference, led Columbus to believe he  had landed in Asia
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Polynesian  explorers replica of double-hulled canoes used to explore the Pacific
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Early ocean-going exploration Large islands of Western Pacific colonized (~ 2500 BCE)  occurred primarily in Mediterranean and Polynesia Polynesia
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