2_origins_planets - Origins of the Earth and its Oceans...

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Unformatted text preview: Origins of the Earth and its Oceans GS222 Lecture 2 Overview- this lecture What do we know about earths creation and its place in the universe? What was the likely mechanism and timing of ocean formation? How does earth compare to neighboring planets? Earth in the Universe One of 8 planets (Pluto demoted) in solar system orbiting average sized star (our Sun) Our solar system located on edge of spiral-shaped galaxy called the Milky Way Milky Way contains 300 billion stars Milky is one of > 100 million galaxies Scale of the Universe Nearest star to ours in Milky Way is 4 light years away 1 light year = distance traveled by light in one year = 9,500,000,000,000 km = 9.5 x 10 12 km = 240 million trips around the earth Milky Way is 100,000 light years in diameter... In the beginning... All matter and energy explodes outward in Big Bang, cloud or nebula made of mostly H atoms Larger clumps had enough gravity to attract matter Compression and spinning led to nuclear fusion reactions ( 2 H + 2 H 4 He), additional fusion creates heavier elements (e.g. C and O) Reactions release heat and energy and balls of matter become stars Log vs. linear plot Draw linear and non-linear relationships Logarithm of a number is the power to which the base is raised to yield the number. Base 10: logarithm of 100 to base 10 is 2 (10 2 = 100) logarithm of 1000 to base 10 is 3 (10 3 = 1000) logarithm of 10000 to base 10 is 4 (10 4 = 10000) log 10 10 = 1 log 10 100 = 2 log 10 1000 = 3 log 10 10000 = 4 Relative abundance of elements in the Universe 1) light elements more abundant than heavy 2) even-numbered more abundant than odd 3) elements with Z > 30 have similar abundance Z =number of protons in nucleus Creation of light elements 2 H + 2 H 4 He (fusion produces helium) initiated during HSK and occurring in our very own Sun: 4 He + 4 He 8 Be (beryllium) as star ages, H abundance and heat output declines, causing collapse : 8 Be + 4 He 12 C (carbon) but beryllium is unstable and only briefly available for:...
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This note was uploaded on 01/20/2012 for the course GEO 222 taught by Professor Davidlund during the Winter '11 term at University of Michigan.

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2_origins_planets - Origins of the Earth and its Oceans...

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