9_water_properties

9_water_properties - Properties of Water GS222 Lecture 9...

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Unformatted text preview: Properties of Water GS222 Lecture 9 – total lecture length 60-65 minutes Overview - this lecture Molecular properties of water (hydrogen bonding, polarity) Consequences for oceanography and climate. Why is the ocean salty? Inputs and outputs. Residence time and principle of constant proportions Properties of H 2 3 key properties 1) polarity- O H H + Covalent bonding (sharing of electrons) between oxygen and hydrogen Molecule is positively charged on one end, negatively charged on the other (i.e. polar) Properties of H 2 3 key properties 2) hydrogen bonding O H H + Weak bonds (no electron sharing) Due to attraction of the positive and negative ends of H 2 O- O H H O H H-- + + + + + hydrogen bond covalent bond Properties of H 2 3 key properties 3) present in all 3 phases in earth’s temperature range (ice, liquid, and vapor) Consequences Water has a very high heat capacity large quantities of heat required to raise temperature (~4 J to raise 1 g by 1 deg C) heat absorbed by H bonds moderates coastal temperatures Water has a very high latent heat of vaporization massive quantities of heat required to vaporize liquid water heat absorbed by H bonds key factor in atmospheric heat transport Water phases vs. heat energy 1 calorie = 4.2 Joules Consequences Water is an extremely good solvent, aka “the universal solvent” solvent: liquid that dissolves a solid an effective solvent due to polarity e.g. NaCl (table salt) dissolves because: 1) Na + ion is attracted to negative end of H 2 0, and 2) Cl- attracted to positive end of H 2 0 Consequences Water attacks and surrounds or ‘hydrates’ ions Animation: http://chemlinks.beloit.edu/Water/moviepages/Comp3salt.htm Consequences Water is an extremely good solvent, aka “the universal solvent” once surrounded by H 2 O molecules (i.e. hydrated), dissolved ions too far apart to attract one another water is merciless predator of salts, a piranha!- O H H + Properties of water summary Property Special Characteristic Importance Heat capacity Higher than that of any solid or liquid other than ammonia....
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This note was uploaded on 01/20/2012 for the course GEO 222 taught by Professor Davidlund during the Winter '11 term at University of Michigan.

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9_water_properties - Properties of Water GS222 Lecture 9...

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