24_phytoplankton - Phytoplankton GS222 Lecture 24 Overview...

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Unformatted text preview: Phytoplankton GS222 Lecture 24 Overview - this lecture Global productivity and food webs Plankton adaptations Phytoplankton: diatoms, dinoflagellates, coccolithophores, and Prochlorococcu s High productivity equatorial regions due to upwelling, low productivity subtropical gyres due to downwelling. Examples of coastal upwelling areas around the globe, and divergence/upwelling in the Southern Ocean. AABW AAIW Northern Hemisphere Winter Northern Hemisphere Summer Southern Hemisphere Summer Southern Hemisphere Winter Marine life Plankton: unable to swim against currents; drifters phytoplankton (plants) and zooplankton (animals) Nekton: active swimmers e.g. fish, squid, marine mammals Benthos: sea-floor dwellers benthic plants live in shallow depths benthic animals live at all depths, typically detritus feeders Trophic levels Heterotrophs congregate in areas of high primary productivity. Food chain: phytoplankton consumed by zooplankton, which are consumed by carnvirous zooplankton, which are in turn eaten by fish... Each step respresents a trophic level. Trophic levels A more realistic marine food web omnivores and carnivores eat multiple types of organisms, creating complex trophic linkages Phytoplankton Autotrophic, provide > 99% of food from marine animals All are small and unicellular: picoplankton: 0.2-2 μ m in diamter ultraplankton: 2-5 μ m nanoplankton: 5 -20 μ m microplankton: 20 μ m-2 mm can exceed 1 x 10 9 individuals per L!...
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This note was uploaded on 01/20/2012 for the course GEO 222 taught by Professor Davidlund during the Winter '11 term at University of Michigan.

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24_phytoplankton - Phytoplankton GS222 Lecture 24 Overview...

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