33_gulfstream_intro

33_gulfstream_intro - Gulf Stream surface temperature,...

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Sea-surface temperature and salinity - salinity increased during Little Ice Age - signal driven by southward migration of the tropical rain belt Linking the hydrologic cycle to oceanic circulation Density and current strength estimates - Gulf Stream was weaker during Little Ice Age (~1300-1850 A.D.) - consistent with cooling in North Atlantic Gulf Stream surface temperature, salinity and strength during the Last Millennium
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George Washington Crossing the Delaware   Emanuel Gottlieb Leutze 1851
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Argentière Glacier French Alps 1966 photo 1850 etching Typical of 17th to 19th century glacial advances in: - Alps - Iceland - Scandinavia - Canadian Rockies - Alaska - Peru
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Large scale oceanic circulation Gulf Stream Gulf Stream North Atlantic North Atlantic Deep Water Deep Water (NADW) (NADW)
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Sinking of dense (cold and salty) water in the North Atlantic
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Average air temperature for January -  warmer over oceans than land because oceans retain summer heat -  coastal areas have mild maritime climate (e.g. Pacific Northwest, England) -  prevailing west to east winds create contrast in land temperature across   ocean basins -  N. Atlantic warmer on average than N. Pacific due to Gulf Stream
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Schmitz, 1996 North Atlantic surface circulation NADW compensation wind-driven gyre flow
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1.3 PW (1PW = 10 15 W) Gulf Stream volume and heat transports 31 Sv (1Sv = 1x10 6 m 3 s -1 ) Schmitz, 1996; Larsen, 1992
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Location of core sites in Florida Straits
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Core retrieval and sampling
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0.2 mm Cibicidoides floridanus Foraminifera record salinity of sea water Oxygen isotopes - atoms of same element with equal number of
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33_gulfstream_intro - Gulf Stream surface temperature,...

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