TextBook.pdf - Introduction to Psychology Introduction to Psychology Steffi Jesseau Introduction to Psychology Copyright \u00a9 by Steffi Jesseau All Rights

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Unformatted text preview: Introduction to Psychology Introduction to Psychology Steffi Jesseau Introduction to Psychology Copyright © by Steffi Jesseau. All Rights Reserved. Contents 1. Chapter 1.1: Why Science? Edward Diener and Steffi Jesseau 2. Chapter 1.2: History of Psychology OpenStax and Steffi Jesseau 3. Chapter 1.3: Modern Psychology OpenStax and Steffi Jesseau 4. Chapter 1.4: Research Design Christie Napa Scollon, Steffi Jesseau, and OpenStax 5. Chapter 2.1: Statistical Thinking Beth Chance, Allan Rossman, and Steffi Jesseau 6. Chapter 2.2: Genetics OpenStax and Steffi Jesseau 7. Chapter 2.3: Nature "vs." Nurture Eric Turkheimer and Steffi Jesseau 8. Chapter 2.4: Epigenetics Ian Weaver and Steffi Jesseau 1 15 36 48 71 84 92 113 9. Chapter 2.5: Neurons, Action Potentials, and Neurotransmitters 142 OpenStax and Steffi Jesseau 10. Chapter 3.1: The Nervous System and Brain Structures 155 Aneeq Ahmad and Steffi Jesseau 11. Chapter 3.2: Brain Lobes and Functions OpenStax and Steffi Jesseau 12. Chapter 4.1: How Memory Functions OpenStax and Steffi Jesseau 13. Chapter 4.2: Parts of the Brain Involved with Memory 166 183 200 OpenStax and Steffi Jesseau 14. Chapter 4.3: Forgetting Nicole Dudukovic, Brice Kuhl, and Steffi Jesseau 15. Chapter 4.4: Enhancing Memory OpenStax and Steffi Jesseau 16. Chapter 5.1: What Is Learning? OpenStax and Steffi Jesseau 17. Chapter 5.2: Classical Conditioning OpenStax and Steffi Jesseau 18. Chapter 6.1: Operant Conditioning OpenStax and Steffi Jesseau 19. Chapter 6.2: Observational Learning OpenStax and Steffi Jesseau 20. Chapter 7.1: Cognition OpenStax and Steffi Jesseau 209 224 233 240 263 287 296 21. Chapter 7.2: Problem Solving OpenStax and Steffi Jesseau 22. Chapter 7.3: Evolutionary Psychology David Buss and Steffi Jesseau 23. Chapter 8.1: What Is Consciousness? OpenStax and Steffi Jesseau 24. Chapter 8.2: Sleep OpenStax and Steffi Jesseau 25. Chapter 8.3: Sleep Problems and Disorders OpenStax and Steffi Jesseau 26. Chapter 9.1: Sensation and Perception OpenStax and Steffi Jesseau 27. Chapter 9.2: Vision OpenStax and Steffi Jesseau 28. Chapter 9.3: Waves, Wavelengths, and Hearing 302 313 331 343 360 373 383 395 OpenStax and Steffi Jesseau 29. Chapter 9.4: Touch Dan-Mikael Ellingson, Siri Leknes, Guro Løseth, Adam Privitera, and Steffi Jesseau 30. Chapter 10.1: Motivation OpenStax and Steffi Jesseau 31. Chapter 10.2: Hunger and Eating Sudeep Bhatia, George Loewenstein, OpenStax, and Steffi Jesseau 32. Chapter 10.3: Sexual Behavior OpenStax and Steffi Jesseau 406 413 425 438 33. Chapter 10.4: Emotion OpenStax and Steffi Jesseau 34. Chapter 11.1: Lifespan Development OpenStax and Steffi Jesseau 35. Chapter 11.2: Stages of Development OpenStax and Steffi Jesseau 36. Chapter 11.3: Lifespan Theories OpenStax and Steffi Jesseau 37. Chapter 12.1: Personality Edward Diener, Richard Lucas, and Steffi Jesseau 38. Chapter 12.2: Social Psychology OpenStax and Steffi Jesseau 39. Chapter 12.3: Conformity, Compliance, and Obedience 453 469 479 508 517 537 551 OpenStax and Steffi Jesseau 40. Chapter 13.1: What Are Psychological Disorders? 569 OpenStax and Steffi Jesseau 41. Chapter 13.2: Diagnosing and Classifying Psychological Disorders 583 OpenStax and Steffi Jesseau 42. Chapter 13.3: Anxiety and Related Disorders David Barlow, Kristen Ellard, OpenStax, and Steffi Jesseau 43. Chapter 13.4: Mood Disorders OpenStax and Steffi Jesseau 591 619 44. Chapter 13.5: Dissociative Disorders and Schizophrenia 644 OpenStax and Steffi Jesseau 45. Chapter 13.6: Personality Disorders OpenStax and Steffi Jesseau 46. Chapter 13.7: Disorders in Childhood OpenStax and Steffi Jesseau 47. Chapter 14.1: Types of Treatment OpenStax and Steffi Jesseau 48. Chapter 14.2: What Is Stress? OpenStax and Steffi Jesseau 49. Chapter 14.3: The Pursuit of Happiness OpenStax and Steffi Jesseau References 661 676 694 719 737 753 1 Chapter 1.1: Why Science? EDWARD DIENER AND STEFFI JESSEAU What Is Science? Psychology is a discipline that is fundamentally rooted in science. But what exactly do we mean by “science”? Ancient people were more likely to believe in magical and supernatural explanations for natural phenomena such as solar eclipses or thunderstorms. By contrast, scientifically minded people try to figure out the natural world through testing and observation. Specifically, science is the use of systematic observation in order to acquire knowledge. For example, children in a science class might combine vinegar and baking soda to observe the bubbly chemical reaction. These empirical methods are wonderful ways to learn about 1 STEFFI JESSEAU the physical and biological world. Science is not magic—it will not solve all human problems, and might not answer all our questions about behavior. Nevertheless, it appears to be the most powerful method we have for acquiring knowledge about the observable world. The essential elements of science are as follows: 1. Systematic observation is the core of science. Scientists observe the world, in a very organized way. We often measure the phenomenon we are observing. We record our observations so that memory biases are less likely to enter in to our conclusions. We are systematic in that we try to observe under controlled conditions, and also systematically vary the conditions of our observations so that we can see variations in the phenomena and understand when they occur and do not occur. 2 Introduction to Psychology Systematic observation is the core of science. [Image: Cvl Neuro, Avbju7, CC BY-SA 3.0, uhHola] 2. Observation leads to hypotheses we can test. When we develop hypotheses and theories, we state them in a way that can be tested. For example, you might make the claim that candles made of paraffin wax burn more slowly than do candles of the exact 3 STEFFI JESSEAU same size and shape made from bee’s wax. This claim can be readily tested by timing the burning speed of candles of the same volume and shape made from these different materials. 3. Science is democratic. People in ancient times may have been willing to accept the views of their kings or pharaohs as absolute truth. These days, however, people are more likely to want to be able to form their own opinions and debate conclusions. Scientists are skeptical and have open discussions about their observations and theories. These debates often occur as scientists publish competing findings with the idea that the best data will win the argument. 4. Science is cumulative. We can learn the important truths discovered by earlier scientists and build on them. Any physics student today knows more about physics than Sir Isaac Newton did even though Newton was possibly the most brilliant physicist of all time. A crucial aspect of scientific progress is that after we learn of earlier advances, we can build upon them and move farther along the path of knowledge. PSYCHOLOGY AS A SCIENCE Even in modern times many people are skeptical that psychology is really a science. To some degree this doubt 4 Introduction to Psychology stems from the fact that many psychological phenomena such as depression, intelligence, and prejudice do not seem to be directly observable in the same way that we can observe the changes in ocean tides or the speed of light. Because thoughts and feelings are invisible many early psychological researchers chose to focus on behavior. You might have noticed that some people act in a friendly and outgoing way while others appear to be shy and withdrawn. If you have made these types of observations then you are acting just like early psychologists who used behavior to draw inferences about various types of personality. By using behavioral measures and rating scales it is possible to measure thoughts and feelings. This is similar to how other researchers explore “invisible” phenomena such as the way that educators measure academic performance or economists measure quality of life. One important pioneering researcher was Francis Galton, a cousin of Charles Darwin who lived in England during the late 1800s. Galton used patches of color to test people’s ability to distinguish between them. He also invented the self-report questionnaire, in which people offered their own expressed judgments or opinions on various matters. Galton was able to use self-reports to examine—among other things—people’s differing ability to accurately judge distances. 5 STEFFI JESSEAU In 1875 Francis Galton did pioneering studies of twins to determine how much the similarities and differences in twins were affected by their life experiences. In the course of this work he coined the phrase “Nature versus Nurture”. [Image: XT Inc., , CC ] 6 BY-NC-SA 2.0, Introduction to Psychology Although he lacked a modern understanding of genetics Galton also had the idea that scientists could look at the behaviors of identical and fraternal twins to estimate the degree to which genetic and social factors contribute to personality; a puzzling issue we currently refer to as the “nature-nurture question.” In modern times psychology has become more sophisticated. Researchers now use better measures, more sophisticated study designs and better statistical analyses to explore human nature. Simply take the example of studying the emotion of happiness. How would you go about studying happiness? One straightforward method is to simply ask people about their happiness and to have them use a numbered scale to indicate their feelings. There are, of course, several problems with this. People might lie about their happiness, might not be able to accurately report on their own happiness, or might not use the numerical scale in the same way. With these limitations in mind modern psychologists employ a wide range of methods to assess happiness. They use, for instance, “peer report measures” in which they ask close friends and family members about the happiness of a target individual. Researchers can then compare these ratings to the self-report ratings and check for discrepancies. Modern psychologists even use biological measures such as saliva cortisol samples (cortisol is a stress related hormone) or fMRI images of brain activation (the left pre-frontal cortex is one area of brain activity associated with good moods). 7 STEFFI JESSEAU Despite our various methodological advances it is true that psychology is still a very young science. While physics and chemistry are hundreds of years old, psychology is barely a hundred and fifty years old and most of our major findings have occurred only in the last 60 years. There are legitimate limits to psychological science but it is a science nonetheless. HOW PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE IS USEFUL Psychological science is useful for creating interventions that help people live better lives. A growing body of research is concerned with determining which therapies are the most and least effective for the treatment of psychological disorders. 8 Introduction to Psychology Cognitive Behavioral Therapy has shown to be effective in treating a variety of conditions, including depression. [Image: SalFalco, , CC BY-NC 2.0, ] For example, many studies have shown that cognitive behavioral therapy can help many people suffering from depression and anxiety disorders (Butler, Chapman, Forman, & Beck, 2006; Hoffman & Smits, 2008). In contrast, research reveals that some types of therapies actually might be harmful on average (Lilienfeld, 2007). In organizational psychology, a number of psychological interventions have been found by researchers to produce greater productivity and satisfaction in the workplace (e.g., Guzzo, Jette, & Katzell, 1985). Human factor engineers have greatly increased the safety and utility of the products we use. For example, the human factors psychologist Alphonse Chapanis and other researchers redesigned the cockpit controls of aircraft to make them less confusing and easier to respond to, and this led to a decrease in pilot errors and crashes. Forensic sciences have made courtroom decisions more valid. We all know of the famous cases of imprisoned persons who have been exonerated because of DNA evidence. Equally dramatic cases hinge on psychological findings. For 9 STEFFI JESSEAU instance, psychologist Elizabeth Loftus has conducted research demonstrating the limits and unreliability of eyewitness testimony and memory. Thus, psychological findings are having practical importance in the world outside the laboratory. Psychological science has experienced enough success to demonstrate that it works, but there remains a huge amount yet to be learned. 10 Introduction to Psychology ETHICS OF SCIENTIFIC PSYCHOLOGY Diagram of the Milgram Experiment in which the “teacher” (T) was asked to deliver a (supposedly) painful electric shock to the “learner”(L). Would this experiment be approved by a review board today? [Image: Fred the Oyster, ZIbQz1, CC BY-SA 4.0, ] Psychology differs somewhat from the natural sciences such 11 STEFFI JESSEAU as chemistry in that researchers conduct studies with human research participants. Because of this there is a natural tendency to want to guard research participants against potential psychological harm. For example, it might be interesting to see how people handle ridicule but it might not be advisable to ridicule research participants. Scientific psychologists follow a specific set of guidelines for research known as a code of ethics. There are extensive ethical guidelines for how human participants should be treated in psychological research (Diener & Crandall, 1978; Sales & Folkman, 2000). Following are a few highlights: 1. Informed consent. In general, people should know when they are involved in research, and understand what will happen to them during the study. They should then be given a free choice as to whether to participate. 2. Confidentiality. Information that researchers learn about individual participants should not be made public without the consent of the individual. 3. Privacy. Researchers should not make observations of people in private places such as their bedrooms without their knowledge and consent. Researchers should not seek confidential information from others, such as school authorities, without consent of the participant or his or her guardian. 4. Benefits. Researchers should consider the benefits of 12 Introduction to Psychology their proposed research and weigh these against potential risks to the participants. People who participate in psychological studies should be exposed to risk only if they fully understand these risks and only if the likely benefits clearly outweigh the risks. 5. Deception. Some researchers need to deceive participants in order to hide the true nature of the study. This is typically done to prevent participants from modifying their behavior in unnatural ways. Researchers are required to “debrief” their participants after they have completed the study. Debriefing is an opportunity to educate participants about the true nature of the study. WHY LEARN ABOUT SCIENTIFIC PSYCHOLOGY? I once had a psychology professor who asked my class why we were taking a psychology course. Our responses give the range of reasons that people want to learn about psychology: 1. To understand ourselves 2. To understand other people and groups 3. To be better able to influence others, for example, in socializing children or motivating employees 4. To learn how to better help others and improve the world, for example, by doing effective psychotherapy 13 STEFFI JESSEAU 5. To learn a skill that will lead to a profession such as being a social worker or a professor 6. To learn how to evaluate the research claims you hear or read about 7. Because it is interesting, challenging, and fun! People want to learn about psychology because this is exciting in itself, regardless of other positive outcomes it might have. Why do we see movies? Because they are fun and exciting, and we need no other reason. Thus, one good reason to study psychology is that it can be rewarding in itself. 14 2 Chapter 1.2: History of Psychology OPENSTAX AND STEFFI JESSEAU History of Psychology Psychology is a relatively young science with its experimental roots in the 19th century, compared, for example, to human physiology, which dates much earlier. Anyone interested in exploring issues related to the mind generally did so in a philosophical context prior to the 19th century. Wundt and Structuralism Wilhelm Wundt (1832–1920) was a German scientist who was the first person to be referred to as a psychologist. Wundt viewed psychology as a scientific study of conscious 15 STEFFI JESSEAU experience, and he believed that the goal of psychology was to identify components of consciousness and how those components combined to result in our conscious experience. Wundt used introspection (he called it “internal perception”), a process by which someone examines their own conscious experience as objectively as possible, making the human mind like any other aspect of nature that a scientist observed. Wundt’s version of introspection used only very specific experimental conditions in which an external stimulus was designed to produce a scientifically observable (repeatable) experience of the mind (Danziger, 1980). The first stringent requirement was the use of “trained” or practiced observers, who could immediately observe and report a reaction. The second requirement was the use of repeatable stimuli that always produced the same experience in the subject and allowed the subject to expect and thus be fully attentive to the inner reaction. These experimental requirements were put in place to eliminate “interpretation” in the reporting of internal experiences and to counter the argument that there is no way to know that an individual is observing their mind or consciousness accurately, since it cannot be seen by any other person. This attempt to understand the structure or characteristics of the mind was known as structuralism. Wundt established his psychology laboratory at the University at Leipzig in 1879. In this laboratory, Wundt and his students conducted experiments on, for example, reaction times. A subject, sometimes in a room isolated from the scientist, would receive a stimulus such as a light, image, 16 Introduction to Psychology or sound. The subject’s reaction to the stimulus would be to push a button, and an apparatus would record the time to reaction. Wundt could measure reaction time to onethousandth of a second (Nicolas & Ferrand, 1999). (a) Wilhelm Wundt is credited as one of the founders of psychology. He created the first laboratory for psychological research. (b) This photo shows him seated and surrounded by fellow researchers and equipment in his laboratory in Germany. However, despite his efforts to train individuals in the process of introspection, this process remained highly subjective, and there was very little agreement between individuals. As a result, structuralism fell out of favor with the passing of Wundt’s student, Edward Titchener, in 1927 (Gordon, 1995). 17 STEFFI JESSEAU Wertheimer and Gestalt Psychology Max Wertheimer (1880–1943), Kurt Koffka (1886–1941) was a German psychologist who immigrated to the United States in the early 20th century to escape Nazi Germany. He is credited with introducing psychologists in the United States to various Gestalt principles. The word Gestalt roughly translates to “whole;” a major emphasis of Gestalt psychology deals with the fact that although a sensory experience can be broken down into individual parts, how those parts relate to each other as a whole is often what the individual responds to in perception. For example, a song may be made up of individual notes played by different instruments, but the real nature of the song is perceived in the combinations of these notes as they form the melody, rhythm, and harmony. In many ways, this particular perspective would have directly contradicted Wundt’s ideas of structuralism (Thorne & Henley, 2005). Unfortunately, in moving to the Uni...
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