1.1_ Overview of Physiology and Major Systems of the Body_ Essential Human Anatomy and Physiology I

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8/20/20201.1: Overview of Physiology and Major Systems of the Body: Essential Human Anatomy and Physiology I with Lab- Keck2/19The human body has many levels of organization(Figure 1.1). Studying the humanbody at thechemical levelis to look at atoms, which are the smallest buildingblocks of matter. Atoms combine to form molecules, which then combine to formmacromolecules (such as proteins and nucleic acids). Macromolecules combine toform organelles (working structures) inside of each human cell. Examples oforganelles are the nucleus and mitochondria of the cell. The cells are the smallestunits of living organisms and comprise thecellular levelof structural organization.There are many different types of cells in the body that perform various functions;together, they form thetissue level.Figure 1.1Levels of organization in the human bodyTissuesare groups of cells that perform a common function. The four basic tissuetypes in the human body are epithelium, muscle, connective, and nervous tissue,each of which is made up of specific cell types that perform specific functions.Epithelial tissue(Figure 1.2) covers the body surface and lines the cavities of thebody. The cells that make up epithelial tissue are specialized for tasks such as
8/20/20201.1: Overview of Physiology and Major Systems of the Body: Essential Human Anatomy and Physiology I with Lab- Keck3/19secretion and absorption. The structure of epithelial tissue contains closely packedcells with very little matrix (layer outside the cells). Epithelial tissue can be found asone layer or in many layers. These cells are under constant cell division to replacedead cells that shed away.Figure 1.2Epithelial tissue lining the cavities inside the body shown in pink
8/20/20201.1: Overview of Physiology and Major Systems of the Body: Essential Human Anatomy and Physiology I with Lab- Keck1/191.1: Overview of Physiology andMajor Systems of the BodyAnatomy and physiology are studies of how the human body works. Anatomyfocuses on the structure of the body and how it is designed, and physiology looks athow the body functions. The physiology of the body depends on the anatomy of thebody. The physiology of how the organs function depends on the structure of thebones, which are hard structures made of mineral deposits that protect the organsfrom damage. It is important to study anatomy and physiology together because theyare so closely related.13:12
8/20/20201.1: Overview of Physiology and Major Systems of the Body: Essential Human Anatomy and Physiology I with Lab- Keck

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