4.1_ Anatomy of the Skeleton_ Overview and Axial Skeleton_ Essential Human Anatomy and Physiology I

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8/20/20204.1: Anatomy of the Skeleton: Overview and Axial Skeleton: Essential Human Anatomy and Physiology I with Lab- Keck2/25and lungs. Flat bones, such as those of the skull, ribs, and breastbone, produceblood cells.All bones are storage areas for inorganic calcium and phosphorus salts. Bones alsoprovide sites for attachment of muscle, tendons, and ligaments. The long bones,particularly those of the legs and the arms, permit flexible body movement. Thelarge, heavy bones of the legs support the body against the pull of gravity.There are five types of bones, each with a distinct shape and form (seeFigure 4.1).The shape of a bone determines its function.Long bonesare long and thin,designed to support body weight and enable movement. Examples of long bonesinclude the humerus, ulna, radius, tibia, fibula, metacarpals, and metatarsals.Flatbones(such as in the cranium) form the roof of the skull to protect the brain.Shortbonesare small and cube-shaped. The carpals in the hand and tarsals in the footare short bones.Irregular bonesare varied in structure with ridges or irregularsurfaces. The vertebrae are irregular bones designed to protect the spinal cord aswell as enable spinal movements. The pelvic bones (ilium, ischium, and pubis) arealso irregular bones.Sesamoid bonesare small and flat, reinforcing tendons. Thepatella is an example of a sesamoid bone.
8/20/20204.1: Anatomy of the Skeleton: Overview and Axial Skeleton: Essential Human Anatomy and Physiology I with Lab- Keck3/25Figure 4.1 The five basic bone shapes: Long, flat, short, irregular, and sesamoidBone LandmarksBones are not simply smooth surfaces. Each bone has distinct markings, ridges,grooves, or holes calledbone landmarks. Bone landmarks serve several functions.Some bone landmarks allow for tendons to attach. Other markings indicate wherenerves and blood vessels run alongside the bone or penetrate the bone to provideblood and nervous supply. Major bone landmarks on individual bones will bediscussed throughout this module. The following list of terms will help to provide adescription of the types of bone landmarks:
8/20/20204.1: Anatomy of the Skeleton: Overview and Axial Skeleton: Essential Human Anatomy and Physiology I with Lab- Keck4/25Foramen, canal, fissure -openings in bone to allow for nerves, blood supply, ora passagewaySinus -hollow chamber in bone, usually filled with airProcess, ramus -elevations in boneTrochanter, tuberosity, tubercle, crest, line, spine -processes or projectionsfor tendon or ligament attachmentHead, neck, condyle, trochlea, facet -processes designed for articulation withadjacent bonesFossa, sulcus -depressions in boneOverview of the Skeleton

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Term
Fall
Professor
N/A
Tags
Vertebra, Cervical vertebrae, Flat bones

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