apj500_798 - THE ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL, 500 : 798 809, 1998...

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T HE A STROPHYSICAL J OURNAL , 500:798 È 809, 1998 June 20 1998. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Printed in U.S.A. ( BROAD P v ABSORPTION IN THE QSO PG 1254 ] 047: COLUMN DENSITIES, IONIZATIONS, AND METAL ABUNDANCES IN BROAD ABSORPTION LINE WINDS F RED H AMANN Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, San Diego; La Jolla, CA 92093-0424; fhamann = ucsd.edu Received 1997 November 12; accepted 1998 January 29 ABSTRACT This paper discusses the detection of P V jj 1118, 1128 and other broad absorption lines (BALs) in archival Hubble Space Telescope spectra of the low-redshift BAL QSO PG 1254 ] 047. The P V identiÐ- cation is secured by excellent redshift and proÐle coincidences with the other BALs, such as C IV jj 1548, 1550 and Si IV jj 1393, 1403, and by photoionization calculations showing that other lines near this wavelength, e.g., Fe III j 1123, should be much weaker than P V . The observed BAL strengths imply that either (1) there are extreme abundance ratios such as and [C/H] Z ] 1.0, [Si/H] Z ] 1.8, [P/C] Z ] 2.2, or (2) at least some of the lines are much more optically thick than they appear. I argue that the signiÐ- cant presence of P V absorption indicates severe line saturation, which is disguised in the observed (moderate-strength) BALs because the absorber does not fully cover the continuum source(s) along our line(s) of sight. The variety of observed BAL strengths and proÐles results from a complex mixture of ionization, optical depth, and coverage fraction e†ects, making useful determinations of the abundance ratios impossible without a speciÐc physical model. Computed optical depths for all UV resonance lines show that the observed BALs are consistent with solar abundances if (1) the ionization parameter is at least moderately high, log (2) the total hydrogen column density is log and U Z [ 0.6, N H (cm ~2 ) Z 22.0, (3) the optical depths in strong lines like C IV and O VI jj 1032, 1038 are and respectively. Z 25 Z 80, These optical depths and column densities are at least an order of magnitude larger than expected from the residual intensities in the BAL troughs, but they are consistent with the large absorbing columns derived from X-ray observations of BAL QSOs. In particular, a nominal X-ray column density of log N H (cm ~2 ) D 23 could produce the observed BAL spectrum if in a simple one-zone ] 0.4 [ log U [ ] 0.7 medium. The outÑowing BAL region, at velocities from [ 15,000 to [ 27,000 km s ~1 in PG 1254 ] 047, is therefore a strong candidate for the X-ray absorber in BAL QSOs. Subject headings: quasars: absorption lines È quasars: individual (PG 1254 ] 047) È ultraviolet: galaxies 1. INTRODUCTION Broad absorption lines (BALs) are prominent features in the UV spectra of D 10% È 15% of optically selected (radio- quiet) QSOs et al. et al. The (Foltz 1990; Weymann 1991). lines form in ionized winds in which the speeds can range from near zero to more than 30,000 km s ~1 (for reviews, see Turnshek Turn- Weymann 1995; 1995, 1988; Weymann, shek, & Christiansen The most frequently measured 1985).
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This note was uploaded on 01/22/2012 for the course AST 1022l taught by Professor Colon during the Fall '07 term at University of Florida.

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apj500_798 - THE ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL, 500 : 798 809, 1998...

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