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Unformatted text preview: 11-1 Chapter 11. Using Reference Architectures and Frameworks John M. BorkyCopyright 2009-2010. All rights reserved. No portion of this document may be reproduced or distributed without the consent of the author.11-2 Chapter 11. Using Reference Architectures and Frameworks “I think it only makes sense to seek out and identify structures of authority, hierarchy, and domination in every aspect of life, and to challenge them . . .” Jean Baudrillard “Experience is the name that everyone gives to their mistakes.” Oscar Wilde The Nature and Uses of Reference Architecture In Chapter 4, we stressed the use of design patterns as a way to achieve design reuse and benefit from proven solutions to common problems. Now we expand this concept to architecture as a whole. Just as a familiar software design pattern is an abstraction of a set of concrete designs that can be tailored to a new situation while retaining the proven un-derlying principles, a reference architecture (RA) abstracts the structure, behavior and rules of one or more successful real-world architectures to create a template. The funda-mental motivation is to save effort and reduce risk in developing a new system or enter-prise. A typical definition of an RA is that of Ellis, et al., “The highest-level (i.e., funda-mental, unifying) concept of a system in its environment.”1RAs provide “. . . a means to present the essential objects and processes associated with the concept being modeled.”2The IEEE 1471 standard also provides guidance for the structure and use of RAs. RAs can be defined at any point in the architecture taxonomy of Figure 1-3, but we will stress the system level on the Axis of Orgnization and the higher levels of the Axis of Abstraction, since a physical architecture is, by definition, a point design rather than a generalization. RAs are also widely used, and even mandated, for enterprises; the basic approach is the same, but the architecture template must include features to deal with geographical dispersion of nodes and systems, including wide area networking and inte-roperability among resources using heterogeneous technologies. We will label these En-terprise Reference Architectures because, as discussed below, the term Enterprise Archi-tecture (EA) is widely used in a somewhat different sense. RAs and other forms of architecture guidance are defined by companies, Government agencies, and other communities that seek to capitalize on previous architecture invest-ments, enhance architecture quality and compatibility, and profit from lessons learned.3Most major Information Technology vendors publish RAs for the system categories and processes their products support. Many constructs that are labeled RAs adopt a methodo-logical focus, seeking to prescribe the way in which architectures should be developed and documented. We prefer to treat these under the category of architecture frameworks, another topic in this Chapter. We reserve the term RA for an architecture whose content another topic in this Chapter....
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This note was uploaded on 01/20/2012 for the course ENGR 203 taught by Professor Borky during the Summer '10 term at UCLA.
- Summer '10