Chapter 3

Chapter 3 - Chapter 3. Analyzing Requirements in an...

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3-1- Chapter 3. Analyzing Requirements in an Operational View John M. Borky Copyright 2009-2010. All rights reserved. No portion of this document may be reproduced or distributed without the consent of the author.
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3-2- Chapter 3. Analyzing Requirements in an Operational View “You can’t just ask customers what they want and then try to give that to them. By the time you get it built, they’ll want something new.” Steve Jobs From Requirements to Architecture The first step of MBSAP as outlined in the preceding chapter is to transform customer requirements into an architectural context, represented by the artifacts of an Operational View (OV). This creates the indispensable foundation for design, and insufficient atten- tion to this initial stage makes it almost certain that errors, omissions and inconsistencies will crop up later in the development. In an environment of rapid, relentless change in technologies and operational needs, a customer’s statements about desired system capa- bilities are likely to be incomplete and ambiguous, sometimes even internally contradic- tory. In the course of building an OV, they are subjected to rigorous analysis to resolve these issues, to provide a high quality basis for an effective and affordable solution, and to establish a common reference point for the various engineering specialties involved in developing a complex system. The OV is therefore a key tool for dialog with the custom- er to shape the program and communicate the features and operational behaviors of the evolving solution, especially when customer personnel are not familiar with formal archi- tecture methods. Customer requirements in the field of aerospace and defense, especially for Govern- ment programs, can be expressed in a variety of forms, including: Concept of Operations (CONOPS). In advance of or in addition to a specification, the customer will often develop a CONOPS that captures the needs and assumptions of the operational end-user, describes missions and constraints, and provides context for trade studies and design decisions. Specification. A specification lists the characteristics and performance to be exhibited by the delivered system or enterprise. Following the principles of acquisition reform, DoD policy calls for these to be performance specifications that leave the design de- tails to the developer. Other Government agencies issue specifications with varying degrees of design guidance. Generally, a specification defines both Threshold (mini- mum acceptable) and Objective (desired) levels of performance, effectively establish- ing a trade space within which performance, cost, schedule, risk, reliability, and other variables can be analyzed to optimize the solution. When the right values for system parameters are unknown or incompletely known at the outset of a program, an initial concept development phase may be needed to develop a good specification. If these values are expected to evolve based on experience gained in system development,
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This note was uploaded on 01/20/2012 for the course ENGR 203 taught by Professor Borky during the Summer '10 term at UCLA.

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Chapter 3 - Chapter 3. Analyzing Requirements in an...

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