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P221_2008_week11 - Chapter 12 problems Chapter 12 problems...

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Chapter 12 problems
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Chapter 12 problems
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The first experimental determination of the universal Gravitational Constant (G), which appears in Newton’s law for gravitational force was derived (some 100 years after the fact) from experiments by Henry Cavendish using equipment he had inherited (and modified) from Rev. John Michell. When Cavendish published his results in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, his article actually had the title “Experiments to determine the Density of the Earth”. Explain how one might make a connection between the determination of G and the determination of this quantity . [19 no answer; 6 correct; 16 confused] Density is mass per unit volume, and so if there is an area that is more dense than another location, it follows that there is more mass concentrated in one area than in the other. The gravitational constant therefore would be larger in the denser area than the less dense area . [Many were like this, but keep in mind “G” is a constant (it does not depend on anything as far as we know; on the other hand: “g” does depend on M E and R E {AND “G”})] G depends on mass, and mass depends on density First, Newton's law of universal gravitation would be used. If G is determined, then the mass of Earth could also be determined from the 9.8m/s^2 gravitational acceleration on the Earth surface, another known mass, and the distance between Earth and the other known mass. [ALMOST PERFECT!]
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Cavendish Experiment http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cavendish_experiment Artist’s conception of the original Cavendish experiment to “Weigh the Earth”
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Cavendish Experiment http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cavendish_experiment Artist’s conception of the original Cavendish experiment to “Weigh the Earth” Size of the angle Change is greatly exaggerated in this cartoon; it’s hard to measure (tiny)!
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Chapter 13 problems (c) What is its potential energy at launch?
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