PSYCH Lecture 14 - Motivation

PSYCH Lecture 14 - Motivation - Motivation Motivation:...

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Motivation
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Motivation: Definition Motivation: Vigor and persistence of goal-directed behavior Helps move us towards our goals Evolutionary Theory: Motivation plays a significant role in adaptation Social need to affiliate, share resources, provide protection, procreation (reproduction) Why are we motivated for certain things & not others?
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Biological Needs/Motivations Homeostasis: Tendency for the body (person) to maintain a state of constancy (equilibrium) Hunger/Food: Energy is necessary for maintenance and growth. Search for a balanced diet
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Hypothalamus: Primary structure in brain which signals hunger & satiation (fullness) Lateral (near side): Turns hunger “on Stimulation yields increased eating A lesion or damage (lesion (damage in tissue), lateral, become lean – 3 l’s) Ventromedial (lower, middle) : Turns hunger “off” Stimulation stops eating Lesion or damage can cause voracious eating (ventromedial, voracious (eat a lot), become voluptuous)
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Various Factors which Impact Eating Behaviors Biological Factors Genetics influence metabolism Bodily Sensations: growl (hungry, feed me) , distension Chemical Signals to the body Genetic Mapping of “obesity genes”
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Factors Influencing Eating, cont. Social Factors Environmental influences on eating behaviors Complex and multiply determined Eat more in groups Competitive eating – gotta get what I paid for (plate passed around) Expectation and Memory of Meals We don’t always eat because we’re hungry – but because we feel like we’re supposed to (amnesia patients brought Palatability (pleasant to taste) Social interactions Someone dies, bring them a plate of cookies…
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Factors Influencing Eating, cont. Psychological Factors Love comfort; stressed: eat more Learned food habits/preferences Memories associated with food Ex. Nobody makes cookies like grandma, etc Belief and feelings regarding body image Cultural variations: robust = higher class In some cultures, being thin = having no $ can’t afford food Food as a “substitute” for love, sex
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Obesity Obesity rates currently based on BMI (Body Mass Index) An adult who has a BMI 25-29.9 is considered overweight An adult who has a BMI of 30 or higher is considered obese CDC 2005-2006 data 33.3% of men and 35.6% of women were obese Michigan #2 fattest in USA
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Rates of overweight and obese remain high with 31.9% of children and adolescents aged 2 through 19 years at or above the 85th percentile of the 2000 BMI-for-age growth charts. (Source: JAMA as reported by the CDC)
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PSYCH Lecture 14 - Motivation - Motivation Motivation:...

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