Lecture 6 - 5:16 - 1 Lecture 6 Monday Biology 172 Today’s...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–14. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: 1 Lecture 6: Monday, May 16, 2011 Biology 172 Today’s Outline Announcements • My Office hours tomorrow • Review in Tuesday’s Discussion • Exam 1 is Wed, May 18, In class 1-3pm (200 pts) Overview of Metabolism- Metabolic Lifestyles- Key Energy Carriers- Chemical Background Cellular Metabolism- Overview - Glycolysis- Fermentation Metabolism the sum of all chemical interactions in a cell metabolic reactions involve ENERGY EXCHANGE 3 Heterotrophs Photoautotrophs Two Major Metabolic “Lifestyles” 4 ATP consists of three phosphate groups, ribose, and adenine. Phosphate groups Ribose Adenine Energy is released when ATP is hydrolyzed. ATP Water ADP Inorganic phosphate Energy Key Energy-Carrying Molecules Figure 9.1 ATP – the energy “currency” of the cell • its phosphate bonds are hydrolyzed (RELEASES ENERGY) and regenerated (REQUIRES ENERGY) in metabolism 5 A review of how ATP drives cellular work 6 ATP A B Reactants E n d e r g o n i c r e a c t i o n ( B g a i n s P i f r o m A T P ) E x e r g o n i c r e a c t i o n ( L o s s o f P i f r o m A T P ) A BP i “Activated” substrate E x e r g o n i c r e a c t i o n ( B l o s s e s P i ) Energy is required to synthesize AB ∆ G AB Products Figure 9-3 Exergonic Phosphorylation Reactions are Coupled to Endergonic Reactions 7 NAD + Reduction Oxidation Oxidized Oxidized Nicotinamide Phosphate Ribose Phosphate Ribose Adenine Phosphate Phosphate Ribose Ribose Adenine Reduced Nicotinamide NADH (electron carrier) Reduced Key Energy-Carrying Molecules Fig 9.7 NAD+ (Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide) • general e- acceptor in many reactions • NADH donates e- to the electron transport chain for ATP synthesis 8 Chemical Background for Cellular Metabolism • Watch for changes in covalent bonds • Oxidation/Reduction reactions = Redox reactions • Phosphorylation; especially Substrate-level Phosphorylation • Chemiosmosis = mechanism for Oxidative Phosphorylation • Metabolic Control Points; Allosteric Regulation 9 Oxidation-Reduction (Redox) reactions are coupled electron transfers 10 Redox Reactions • LEO says GER • NAD + + H 2 O --> NADH + H + + 1/2 O 2 • Xe- + Y --> X + Ye- 11 Examples of Redox Reactions Na + Cl Na + + Cl- Ionization of salt H-C-OH + NAD + C=O + NADH + H +---- A sugar loses 2 H atoms = 2e- and 2H + (becomes oxidized) NAD + gains 2e- and 1H + (becomes reduced) Na loses electron (becomes oxidized) Cl gains electron (becomes reduced) • coupled electron transfer reactions Oxidation-Reduction (redox) Reactions oxidation – loss of electron(s) from one substance reduction – gain of electron(s) by another substance Fig. 9.4 Photosynthesis: 6 CO 2 (carbon dioxide) 6 H 2 O (water) Input of energy Glucose 6 O 2 (oxygen) Electrons pulled farther from O; O is oxidized Electrons pulled closer to C; C is reduced Potential energy increases 13 Today’s Outline Overview of Metabolism- Metabolic Lifestyles- Key Energy Carriers- Chemical Background Cellular Metabolism- Overview - Glycolysis- Fermentation Energy conversion...
View Full Document

This note was uploaded on 01/21/2012 for the course BIOLOGY 172 taught by Professor Rajeshwarijanakiraman during the Spring '11 term at University of Michigan.

Page1 / 67

Lecture 6 - 5:16 - 1 Lecture 6 Monday Biology 172 Today’s...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 14. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online