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Lecture 6 - 5:16 - Biology 172 Lecture 6 Monday Todays...

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1 Lecture 6: Monday, May 16, 2011 Biology 172 Today’s Outline Announcements My Office hours tomorrow Review in Tuesday’s Discussion Exam 1 is Wed, May 18, In class 1-3pm (200 pts) Overview of Metabolism - Metabolic Lifestyles - Key Energy Carriers - Chemical Background Cellular Metabolism - Overview - Glycolysis - Fermentation
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Metabolism the sum of all chemical interactions in a cell metabolic reactions involve ENERGY EXCHANGE
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3 Heterotrophs Photoautotrophs Two Major Metabolic “Lifestyles”
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4 ATP consists of three phosphate groups, ribose, and adenine. Phosphate groups Ribose Adenine Energy is released when ATP is hydrolyzed. ATP Water ADP Inorganic phosphate Energy Key Energy-Carrying Molecules Figure 9.1 ATP – the energy “currency” of the cell • its phosphate bonds are hydrolyzed (RELEASES ENERGY) and regenerated (REQUIRES ENERGY) in metabolism
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5 A review of how ATP drives cellular work
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6 ATP A B Reactants Enderg onic rea ction (B gains P i from ATP) Exergonic reaction (Loss of P i from ATP) A BP i “Activated” substrate Exergonic reaction (B los ses P i ) Energy is required to synthesize AB G AB Products Figure 9-3 Exergonic Phosphorylation Reactions are Coupled to Endergonic Reactions
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7 NAD + Reduction Oxidation Oxidized Oxidized Nicotinamide Phosphate Ribose Phosphate Ribose Adenine Phosphate Phosphate Ribose Ribose Adenine Reduced Nicotinamide NADH (electron carrier) Reduced Key Energy-Carrying Molecules Fig 9.7 NAD+ (Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide) • general e - acceptor in many reactions • NADH donates e - to the electron transport chain for ATP synthesis
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8 Chemical Background for Cellular Metabolism Watch for changes in covalent bonds Oxidation/Reduction reactions = Redox reactions Phosphorylation; especially Substrate-level Phosphorylation Chemiosmosis = mechanism for Oxidative Phosphorylation Metabolic Control Points; Allosteric Regulation
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9 Oxidation-Reduction (Redox) reactions are coupled electron transfers
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10 Redox Reactions LEO says GER • NAD + + H 2 O --> NADH + H + + 1/2 O 2 Xe - + Y --> X + Ye -
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11 Examples of Redox Reactions Na + Cl Na + + Cl - Ionization of salt H-C-OH + NAD + C=O + NADH + H + - - - - A sugar loses 2 H atoms = 2e- and 2H + (becomes oxidized) NAD + gains 2e- and 1H + (becomes reduced) Na loses electron (becomes oxidized) Cl gains electron (becomes reduced)
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coupled electron transfer reactions Oxidation-Reduction (redox) Reactions oxidation – loss of electron(s) from one substance reduction – gain of electron(s) by another substance Fig. 9.4 Photosynthesis: 6 CO 2 (carbon dioxide) 6 H 2 O (water) Input of energy Glucose 6 O 2 (oxygen) Electrons pulled farther from O; O is oxidized Electrons pulled closer to C; C is reduced Potential energy increases
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13 Today’s Outline Overview of Metabolism - Metabolic Lifestyles - Key Energy Carriers - Chemical Background Cellular Metabolism - Overview - Glycolysis - Fermentation
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Energy conversion Photosynthesis Energy use Glucose Energy storage Starch, glycogen, fats (synthesized from glucose) Cellular Respiration Fermentation Figure 9.7 Glucose Is the Hub of Energy Processing in Cells.
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