Ecology Escape from Predation

Ecology Escape from Predation - Escape from Predation...

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Escape from Predation
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Escape from Predation 1. Escape in time or predator satiation: Mast fruiting in oaks, periodical cicadas, mayflies, century plants, etc. 2. Escape in space: The prey population is very rare and/or highly dispersed, and is able to disperse rapidly to new sites. Predator does not develop search image for it. Fits definition of a metapopulation.
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2. Escape in Space Examples: Orange mite and predatory mite. Opuntia stricta and Cactoblastis cactorum Opuntia introduced into Australia in 1839. By 1900 occupied 10 million acres, by 1925 60 million acres with 3 to 6 foot hedges.
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Cactoblastis larvae on Opuntia pad
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2. Escape in Space The moth Cactoblastis introduced in 1925. Opuntia stands destroyed but moth population crashed. After 1940 reached an equilibrium through escape in space . Opuntia is now a rare plant. If found by a single female moth it will be destroyed. Must reproduce before moths find it.
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Escape from Predation 3. Behavioral Means: A. feigning death or injury, B. mobbing of predators, C. herding and schooling behavior, D. aggressive behavior or E. other.
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A. Kildeer Charadrius vociferus These birds will frequently use the "broken-wing act" to distract predators from their nests. This involves the bird walking away from its nesting area holding its wing in a position that simulates an injury and then flapping around on the ground emitting a distress call.
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A. Kildeer Charadrius vociferus The predators then think they have easy prey and are attracted to this seemingly injured bird. If the parent sees that a potential predator is not following them, they will move closer and get louder until they get the attention of the predator.
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In the case on the right, mobbing of a bald eagle by crows. Mockingbirds
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Ecology Escape from Predation - Escape from Predation...

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