Exam 2 Highlights - Freshwater EcosystemsBiology Review...

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Freshwater Ecosystems- Biology Review Material Exam 2 EVPP/BIOL 350 Fall 2011 Dr. Kim de Mutsert
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Material Chapters 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 Lectures
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Prokaryotes Distinguished from eukaryotes by their lack of intracellular organelles Genetic material not enclosed in a nuclear membrane (there is no nucleus) Presence of macromolecules distinctly different from those of eukaryotes
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Prokaryote energy uptake Heterotrophs: require energy in the form of organic molecules (taken up through the cell wall) Autotrophs: Use CO2 as carbon source - Photoautotrophs Use light energy to drive the synthesis of organic compounds from carbon dioxide - Chemoautotrophs Oxidize inorganic compounds such as hydrogen sulfide or ammonia to obtain energy (and CO2 as carbon source)
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Eukaryota Have organelles within the cells Evolved as a result of endosymbiotic relationship among prokaryotes: organelles are remnants of parasitic bacteria within a large prokaryote Classified into four kingdoms: plants, animals, fungi, and protists (one-celled organisms)
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Lake Biology - Phytoplankton Characteristics Vary in taxonomy and morphology Eukaryotes as well as prokaryotes are represented: Greens, diatoms, dinoflagellates, cryptophytes, euglenoids Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) can be very important
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Lake Biology - Phytoplankton Factors affecting growth Light Light energy required for photosynthesis Light varies with latitude, season, time of day, cloud cover, attenuation coefficient, depth Photosynthesis shows an asymptotic relationship to light - Temperature Pmax related to Temp
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Lake Biology - Phytoplankton Factors affecting growth Nutrients N required for proteins, amino acids P required for ATP, nucleic acids Si for diatom frustules Trace metals in enzymes Carbon from CO2 Nutrients can be taken up in excess of current need for future use (luxury uptake) P generally limiting in most fw systems, but sometimes N
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Lake Biology - Phytoplankton Factors affecting growth Grazing Spines and projections may increase effective size and inhibit grazing Cladocerans esp Daphnia are most efficient grazers Heavy grazing may reduce abundance and productivity of phytoplankton Light to moderate grazing may actually stimulate production by increasing nutrient availability Differential grazing may favor certain cyanobacteria and colonial green algae by removing their competitors since they are resistant to grazing
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Phytoplankton Patterns of Abundance Seasonal - Spring When nutrients from the hypolimnion mix in to the photic zone, and light and temperature again become favorable, rapid growth occurs in spring In shallow lakes, increase in ambient light alone is sufficient to start the bloom In deeper lakes, mixing of the nutrient rich bottom layers is an important part of the process In most lakes, spring bloom is dominated by diatoms
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Phytoplankton Patterns of Abundance Seasonal - Summer
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This note was uploaded on 01/23/2012 for the course BIOL/EVPP 350 taught by Professor Kimdemutsert during the Fall '11 term at George Mason.

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Exam 2 Highlights - Freshwater EcosystemsBiology Review...

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