Larger Organisms - A

Larger Organisms - A - Lecture 11A Larger Organisms...

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Lecture 11A Larger Organisms EVPP/BIOL 350 Freshwater Ecosystems Dr. Kim de Mutsert
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Larger Organisms in Freshwater Macrophytes - plants or large algae Macro Invertebrates - macro crustaceans, clams, snails, aquatic insects Fish - larval phase is considered plankton (ichthyoplanton) - Considered nekton once able to swim (against current), together with mobile macro invertebrates Birds Pantanal,
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Macrophytes Plants whose overall structure is visible to the naked eye Distribution in lakes is subject to two basic constraints: Water must be shallow enough for light to reach the bottom (= littoral zone as we have defined) Physical stability sufficient to allow plants to grow to the bottom
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Littoral Zone Portion of lake where photic zone includes the bottom
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Macrophytes Characteristics General Morphology 4 basic morphological types typically occupying “zones” of increasing depth Emergent Floating-leaved Submersed Unrooted
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Emergent macrophytes Occupy the transition zone between land and water Rooted in sediment or saturated soils (anaerobic) Shoots and leaves extend into the air so, like terrestrial plants, they must be self-supporting & get CO2 from air Mostly angiosperms Ex.: cattails, wild rice Cattail - Typha
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Floating-leaved macrophytes Root in sediment, leaves float on surface Connections are via stems or petioles 0.5 m < z < 3 m Need to have some standing water, but limited by petiole or stem length In case of water lilies, both root and stem are underwater and petioles (leaf stem) extends through water to surface leaves A patch of water lilies may actually be one plant Ex: yellow water lily (Nuphar), white water lily (Nymphaea)
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Submersed Macrophytes Whole plant is underwater 0.5 < z < 10 m (angio-sperms), up to 100 m for mosses, Chara No supporting tissue, rely on turgor pressure and buoyancy to maintain erect form Underwater leaves often finely dissected, but may be laminar May be heterophyllous (different underwater vs. surface leaves) Ex: Myriophyllum (milfoil), Potomogeton (pondweed), Chara (stonewort), Isoetes (water fern)
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Unrooted macrophytes Floating Lemna (duckweed) Eichornia (water hyacinth) Submersed Ceratophyllum (coontail)
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Taxonomy Charaphytes (stoneworts) Algal group related to green algae Macroscopic form Ex: Chara, Nitella Bryophytes (mosses, liverworts) Plants with some tissue and reproductive specialization, but no vascular tissue (xylem, phloem) Ex: Sphagnum
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Taxonomy Ferns and Fern Allies Plants with vascular tissue, but no flowers Ex: Isoetes (submersed macrophyte found in soft water) Ex: Equisetum (horsetail) (emergent macrophyte)
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Taxonomy Gymnosperms Vascular tissue Reproductive: “cones” Ex: Bald Cypress (emergent) Angiosperms Vascular tissue Flowers Ex: Cattail (Typha) Ex: Water Lilies (White
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This note was uploaded on 01/23/2012 for the course BIOL/EVPP 350 taught by Professor Kimdemutsert during the Fall '11 term at George Mason.

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Larger Organisms - A - Lecture 11A Larger Organisms...

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