Stream Chemistry - EVPP/BIOL 350 Freshwater Ecosystems...

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EVPP/BIOL 350 Freshwater Ecosystems Lecture 7 - Stream Chemistry Dr. Kim de Mutsert Fall 2011
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Stream Physicochemistry Suspended Sediments Solutes Temperature Dissolved oxygen
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Suspended Sediments Suspended sediment: fine- grained solids (between 0.45 μm and 1000 μm diameter) whose weight is supported by fluid turbulence
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Stream Competence & Capacity Stream competence : grain size that a current can barely move (any larger particles are deposited)* Stream capacity : max. volume of sediment of a given size that stream can transport (any sediment exceeding the capacity will be deposited). * How to measure? Wentworth scale (next)
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Category Dia (mm) Wentworth scale Boulder Cobble > 256 < -8 Large Small 128 - 256 64 - 128 -7 -6 Pebble Large Small 32 - 64 16 - 32 -5 -4 Gravel Coarse Medium Small 8 - 16 4 - 8 2 - 4 -3 -2 -1 Sand Very Coarse Coarse Medium Fine Very Fine 1 - 2 0.5 - 1 0.25 - 0.5 0.125 - 0.25 0.063 - 0.125 0 1 2 3 4 Silt < 0.063 > 5 Particle Size Classes
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Suspended Sediments Sources Channel and bank erosion Gully erosion Sheet and rill erosion Erosion from land disturbance
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Suspended Sediments Only a portion of sediment mobilized within a basin will leave by way of the outlet Much will be deposited elsewhere (flood plain, depressions, flatter areas, channel banks) before reaching the outlet Coon Creek, WI
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Suspended Sediments Sediment Delivery Ratio = Yield (at Basin Outlet)/Sediment Mobilized in the Watershed (Average Erosion) SDR shows variation with watershed area and climate/soil/ vegetation conditions
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Suspended Sediments SS varies with: Climate Rock/soil type Relief Land use Vegetated cover
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Suspended Sediments Land use can have a particularly strong effect
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Suspended Sediments Particle size varies between systems and with flow within a system Depends on sediment availability under different flows
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Suspended Sediments Suspended sediments are
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This note was uploaded on 01/23/2012 for the course BIOL/EVPP 350 taught by Professor Kimdemutsert during the Fall '11 term at George Mason.

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Stream Chemistry - EVPP/BIOL 350 Freshwater Ecosystems...

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