What is GIS - Geographic Information System Geographic...

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Unformatted text preview: Geographic Information System Geographic Information System Geographic (GIS) ((GIS) (GIS) GIS) What is GIS? Think About Geography Think About Geography Think What is Geography? • Association of American Geographers’ definition: • Geography is the science of place and space • Merriam-Webster’s definition: • A science that deals with the description, distribution, and interaction of the diverse physical, biological, and cultural features of the earth’s surface Think About Geography Think About Geography Think Questions Geographers Ask • Where is it located? • Why is it located there? • How and why are places different? • How do people interact with their environment? The answer to these questions is spatial data History of Cartography History of Cartography History • The First Maps • Rock walls • Clay tablets • Uses of Maps • Topographic • Celestial • Cosmographic Picture of a cuneiform tablet from http://www.crystalinks.com/cuneiformtablets.html Early Maps of the World Early Maps of the World Early Picture of a T-O map from University of Texas, Foundations of Western European Cartography Exploring the World Exploring the World Exploring Mercator map picture from Encyclopedia Britannica. Maps at War Maps at War Maps Topographic map picture of Harper’s Ferry from www.DavidRumsey.com. Linked information reveals patterns… Linked What is Spatial Data? What is Spatial Data? What Location Data • How Many? – What Kind? – Where? Scale of Data • Local to Global to Beyond Data Presentation • Words, Charts, Graphs, Tables, or Maps Estimates are that 80% of all data has a spatial Estimates spatial 80% component component • Data from most sciences can be analyzed spatially spatially Geographic Information Systems Geographic Information Systems Geographic A Definition of GIS A Definition of GIS Definition Definition A Geographic Information System (GIS) links locational and Geographic attribute information and enables a person to visualize patterns, relationships, and trends. This process gives an entirely new perspective to data analysis that cannot be easily seen in a table or list format or on a paper map. Exploring data using GIS turns data into information into knowledge Five Components of GIS Five Components of GIS Five Hardware Hardware The computer, peripherals, and sometimes servers on which the GIS operates Software Provides the functions and tools required to store, analyze, and display data Data Data is stored as vector, raster, or attribute data Methods The guidelines, specifications, standards, and procedures for collecting and analyzing data and applying GIS People GIS needs people to ask the questions; choose, collect, and analyze the data; and interpret the results A Complete GIS A Complete GIS Complete Visualization • GIS as a tool to display spatial data as a map Database Management • GIS as a tool to store and organize spatial data Spatial Analysis • GIS as a tool to analyze and interpret spatial data GIS Combines Spatial Data From Many Sources GIS Combines Spatial Data From Many Sources GIS Sources of Spatial Data Sources of Spatial Data Sources Digitized and Scanned Maps • Purchased, donated, free (Internet) • Created by user Databases • Tables of data GPS • Global Positioning System • Accurate locations Field Sampling of Attributes Remote Sensing and Aerial Photography GIS stores and organizes spatial data in databases Database Database Database Not easy to interpret Not easy to interpret Visualization Visualization Visualization Worth a Thousand Words Worth a Thousand Words Two Ways to Visualize Data Two Ways to Visualize Data Two “The World” in GIS “The World” in GIS Raster -- Grid • “Pixels” • A location and value • Satellite images and aerial photos are already in this format Vector -- Linear Real world • Points, lines, and polygons • “Features” (house, lake, etc.) • Attributes • size, type, length, etc. Five Data Layers Five Data Layers “Alike Features” “Alike Features” Rivers Layer Rivers Roads Layer Lakes Layer Capitals Layer States Layer Turning Data Into Information Turning Data Into Information Turning “Spatial Analysis” ­­ Not Just a Map Asking a Question -- Interaction Asking a Question -- Interaction Asking Maps and Databases are Interactive Maps and Databases are Interactive Maps The Goal of GIS The Goal of GIS The The goal of GIS is to help people and companies do their work better, faster, and cheaper through better faster cheaper Visualization Visualization • GIS provides users with quicker, more accurate representations of spatial data Database Management • GIS makes it easier to keep the spatial data accurate and up to date Spatial Analysis • GIS helps users make more informed decisions *Wherever Spatial Data Analysis Is Needed* Some Ways GIS is Used Some Ways GIS is Used Some Emergency Services • Fire and Police Environmental Environmental • Monitoring and Modeling Business • Site Location, Delivery Systems Industry • Transportation, Communication, Mining, Pipelines, Healthcare Government Government • Local, State, Federal, Military Education • Research, Teaching Tool, Administration Defense Management Defense Management Defense Real Estate Management Real Estate Management Real Education Education Education Utility Management Utility Management Utility Transportation Management Transportation Management Transportation Public Safety Public Safety Public Government Government Government Hospital Facilities Hospital Facilities Hospital GIS on the Internet GIS on the Internet GIS National Atlas • http://nationalatlas.gov National Geographic Map Machine • http://www.nationalgeographic.com/mapmachine Store Locator • http://www.godiva.com Wildlife Finder • http://www.worldwildlife.org/wildfinder GIS Info • http://www.gis.com ESRI ESRI ESRI ESRI provides our users with a complete GIS complete • • • Visualization Database Management Spatial Analysis ESRI offers more than just GIS software. We offer solutions. Our goal is to make our users more successful ESRI ESRI ESRI • 40 Years of Experience • • • • Annual Revenues of $660 Million The Fifth Largest Privately Held Software Company in the World 350,000+ Clients of ESRI Software More Than One Million Users ESRI Regional Offices and International Distributors ESRI Regional Offices and International Distributors ESRI • • • • Headquartered in Redlands, California 10 Domestic Regional Offices International Distributors in More Than 80 Countries Users in More Than 150 Countries ArcGIS Family of Products ArcGIS ArcGIS Server Platform Desktop Author/Serve/Use • Maps • Data Explorer Web Map Viewer Mobile Open APIs Enterprise Environment Us e • Models • Globes • Metadata Serv e ArcGIS Server Autho r Making GIS Knowledge Available To Anyone . . . . . . Integrates With Other Systems Via Standards Integrates Sharing GIS With Others Sharing GIS With Others GIS is a new medium for communication GIS • • • • • Newspapers Radio Television Internet GIS GIS helps people to • Better understand and collaborate • Tell stories about conditions, situations, and events • Forecast the future Sharing GIS With Others… GIS Day Sharing GIS With Others… GIS Day What Is GIS Day? What • International grassroots event to provide education about the power and functionality of GIS • Builds GIS understanding and collaboration in organizations, schools, and communities When To Participate? • Third Wednesday in November each year (held in conjunction with National Geographic Society’s Geography Awareness Week) • November 19, 2008 marks the tenth annual celebration • GIS Day events are held throughout the year! GIS Day GIS Day How Do I Participate? How • Host an Event (open house, workshop, demonstrations, press events) • Teach a Class • Solicit Proclamations • Mentor Students • Conduct Webcasts ...the possibilities are endless ...the GIS Day GIS Day Why Participate? Why • Promote your organization’s use of GIS • Introduce GIS to new prospects, internal and external audiences • Build community understanding of the value of GIS • Participate in GIS educational initiatives and community service projects • Establish mentor relationships with local youth and expose students to cutting edge technology and career options • Market GIS to potential clients GIS Day GIS Day Visit www.gisday.co m for more information and to register your event! ...
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