Final Study Sheet

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Unformatted text preview: Final Examination Study Sheet GGS 311: Introduction to Geographic Information Systems Dr. Matt Rice, Fall 2011 Geographic Data Modeling Longley, chapter 8 GGS- 311_- _Lecture6.ppt 1) Definition of a Data Model a. Lecture 6:3 b. Longley §8.1.1, p.208 2) Levels of abstraction in a data model (concept, diagram) a. Longley §8.1.1, Figure 8.2 b. Lecture 6:5 3) Raster and Vector Data Models (concept, definition) a. Longley §8.2.2 (Raster), Longley 8.2.3 (Vector) b. Lecture 6:8 4) Representation of Points, Lines, and Polygons objects using a vector GIS data model (concept, diagram) a. Longley §8.2.3, Figure 8.7, 8.8, 8.9, 8.10, Lecture 6:13, 6:15- :6:17 5) Definition of Topology (definition) a. Lecture 6:14 (Broad definition) b. Longley § , p.215 (GIS- centric definition) 6) Split and Merge rules for Parcels (concept, diagram) a. Longley §8.2.4, Figure 8.15 b. Lecture 6:25 7) TIN (Triangulated Irregular Network) (concept, definition, application) a. Longley § b. Lecture 6:19 – 6:24 8) Common Mistakes in GIS Data Modeling & Conclusions a. Lecture 6:31- 32 Cartography and Map Production, Geovisualization Longley, chapter 12 & 13 GGS- 311_- _Lecture7.ppt, GGS- 311_- _Lecture7_extra.ppt 1) Definition of a Map (definition) a. Lecture 7:8 b. Longley §12.1, p.299 c. Any other acceptable definition, including those relating to 3D 2D transformation/projection 2) Two main types of maps (topographic, thematic) (definition, concept) a. Lecture 7:10 3) Some general map problems a. Longley §12.2, p.302 b. Lecture 7:10 (second bullet) 4) Limitations of paper maps a. Lecture 7:13 b. Longley §12.2.1, p.304- 306 5) Parts of a map (diagram, concept) a. Lecture 7:15 b. Longley §12.3.1, p.307 c. Longley Figure 12.8 6) Bertin’s graphic primitives (concept) a. Longley, Figure 12.9, Lecture 7:16 7) Map classification a. Lecture 7:20, Longley § - Figure 12.13 8) Cartograms (* THIS WAS COVERED IN THE FINAL LECTURE *, but referenced in Longley Chp. 13) a. Longley §13.3.2, p.335 b. Lecture 9:16- 17, 19 Uncertainty Longley, chapter 6 GGS- 311_- _Lecture8.ppt 1) Concept: “It is impossible to make a perfect representation of the world, so uncertainty about it is inevitable.” (potential short answer) a. Longley §6.1, p.148 b. Lecture 8:6 c. What does this mean? How does it relate to Longley Chapter 3 (representation)? d. How does this concept find its way into practical GIS settings? What problems might you encounter as a GIS practitioner in attempting to model complex features? What uncertainties might be introduced? e. Can you explain how the real world is extremely complex, and how your GIS model of the real world might contain uncertainties? Can you provide a simple example of a complex real world feature that might be simplified, generalized, or modeled in a way that inevitably introduces uncertainty? 2) Sources of Uncertainty in GIS a. Lecture 8:7 (measurement error, specification error, ambiguity, vagueness, quality problems, etc. . . ) 3) Conceptual view of uncertainty (diagram, potential short answer) a. Longley §6.1, p.148- 149 b. Figure 6.1 c. Lecture 8:8 d. Can you describe the process of conceptualizing the real world (Figure 6.1, moving from box 1 to box2) and the uncertainties that occur as a result of limited knowledge, limited perception, limited understanding, and cultural/social/physical settings? e. Can you describe uncertainties that occur as you move from box 2 (conception) to box 3 (measurement and representation)? 4) Ambiguity : Language, Labels a. Longley §, p.154 b. Lecture 8:12 c. Relationship between ambiguity and language 5) Ambiguity: Direct vs. Indirect Indicators a. Longley §, p.154- 157 b. Lecture 8:13, quote p.157 “Ambiguity is introduced . . .” 6) Measuring Uncertainty in Nominal (Categorical) Data a. Confusion Matrix & Interpretation b. Longley §, p.161 c. Longley p.161, Table 6.1 d. Lecture 8:17 – 8:21 e. Be able to identify entries in a confusion matrix associated with: i. Original classification / data recorded in a database [rows] ii. Field check / error assessment (done later) [columns] iii. Total number of parcels [bottom right- hand cell: ‘304’ in the lecture example] iv. Cells showing agreement between classes in orig. and field check [diagonal entries] v. Cells showing disagreement between classes in orig. and field check [off- diagonal entries] vi. Calculation: # of parcels in agreement (diagonal entries) divided by total number of parcels (in class example, this was 209 / 304 = 68.8) You won’t need to calculate Kappa, which is more difficult. 7) Accuracy and Precision (diagram, concept) a. Longley p.164, Figure 6.11 b. Lecture 8:23 8) Rounding (reflecting accuracy in the reporting of measurements) a. Lecture 8:24 9) Positional Error: “A Useful Rule of Thumb for Positional Accuracy” a. Longley §6.3.3, p.165- 166 b. Lecture 8:27- 28 c. Positional error on maps is usually 1/50th of an inch (0.5mm) at map scale. d. For a map printed at 1:24000 (USGS 7.5 minute quads), this equals 12 meters 10) National Map Accuracy Standards (read slides 8:2,3,4 and then re- read 8:27 and think about how they are related) 11) Dealing with Uncertainty in GIS a. Longley 6.5 (conclusions, five major points) b. Lecture 8:33- 34 Web GIS / Future of GIS Be able to identify some major issues, major developments, and their relevance to Web GIS / Online Mapping. Reading the introduction & conclusions for chapters 11 and 18 might be useful. 1) Growth of the Internet (physical network) and the WWW a. Lecture 9:3- 9:4 2) GIS Software Architecture a. Longley 7.3 (figure 7.8) b. Lecture 9:5 3) Important Events a. Late 90s: Online maps b. 2001: Keyhole c. 2004: Google Earth 4) Legal Issues a. FEIST and its relevance to copyright protection for collections of ‘facts’ b. Lecture 9:6- 9:8 5) Two principal geographic data distribution models (cost recovery, free distribution) a. Lecture 9:8 b. Be able to identify the general mandated distribution model for the US Federal government (free distribution or simple cost of reproduction), and contrast it with the distribution models for State/local/foreign governments (widely varying, many include cost recovery & licensing) Material from the first half of class that may appear on the final: 1) Important Elements of Geographic Problems a. Lecture 1:18 b. Longley §1.1, p.4- 10 2) Definitions of GIS (several places in text, in lectures, etc.) a. Longley §1.1, end of ¶ 1, last sentence before bold point b. Longley §1.4, Table 1.3 (p.16) c. Lecture 1:10, 1:19, 1:25 d. Longley §1.5.1 (Anatomy of a GIS) 3) Anatomy of a GIS a. Longley §1.5.1, Figure 1.16 4) Discussion of GIS: Geographic Information (Systems /Science /Studies) a. Longley §1.7, Lecture 1:25 5) Three- tier GIS software architecture model a. Figure 7.2, (7.3- 7.4- 7.5- 7.6), Lecture 2:17- 21 6) Atomic Element of Geographic Information a. Location(X , Y) ,Time , Attribute b. Lecture 3:3, Longley §5.1 7) Function/definition of a Gazatteer, Lecture 3:12 8) Types of GIS Attributes, Lecture 4:12- 13 9) Data collection pie chart – Lecture 5:4 ...
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This note was uploaded on 01/23/2012 for the course GGS 311 taught by Professor Dr.rice during the Fall '11 term at George Mason.

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