GeoReferencing

GeoReferencing - GGS 311: Introduction to Geographic...

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GGS 311: Introduction to Geographic Information Systems Chapter 5: Georeferencing Dr. Matt Rice George Mason University Fall 2011
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Introduction Longley et al., Chapter 5 Learning Objectives: Learn the requirements for an effective system of georeferencing Be familiar with problems associated with placenames, street addresses, and other similar systems Know how the Earth is measured and modeled for the purposes of georeferencing Know the basics of map projections and details of common projections Understand the principles behind GPS and some of its applications
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Introduction Atomic Element of Geographic Information Location ( X , Y) , Time , Attribute “Time is an optional element in geographic information, but location is essential” Terms used to describe “the act of assigning location to ‘atoms’ of information”: georeference geolocate geocode
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Geocoding Addresses
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Geocoding Addresses
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Introduction Georeferences: 909 West Campus Lane, Goleta, California, USA Unique Meaning of the reference system is shared (even internationally – mail delivery) Persistence through time Changes can be problematic (municipal boundary shifts, street renaming, etc.) “To be most useful, georeferences should stay constant through time”
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Georeferences “Every georeference has an associated spatial resolution equal in size to the size of the area that is assigned that georeference.” Street address assigned to a parcel by a municipality, passed on to tax assessor, EMS, schools, etc.
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Georeferences Many georefences are unique only within a specific domain: Los Alamos, New Mexico Los Alamos, California London, Ontario vs. London, UK Springfield (18 in USA) Whitechurch (9 in UK) In the US, streets are generally unique in cities, cities are unique in states, etc.
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Georeferences Metric georeferences, such as latitude and longitude are based on measurement. Advantage: infinitely fine spatial resolution with finer measurement Advantage: GIS functionality, including computing distance “Metric georeferences are much more useful because they allow maps to be made and distances to be calculated”
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Georeferencing: Placenames Giving names to places is the simplest and earliest form of georeferencing, developed in pre- history. • Old tree •Cave •Place to hunt Toponyms : place names Place names and colonization Place names and war Each country has authorized naming committees that standardize geographic names US Board on Geographic Names http://www.uwm.edu/Dept/celtic/ekeltoi/volumes/vol6/6_10/images/fig04_600.jpg Celtic Elements in Northwestern Spain in Pre-Roman times Marco V. García Quintela, Laboratorio de Patrimonio, Paleoambiente y Paisaje, Instituto de Investigacións Tecnolóxicas, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, associated unit of the Instituto de Estudios Gallegos Padre Sarmiento, Centro Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Xunta de Galicia
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Georeferencing: Placenames Mt. Everest / Chomolungma
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This note was uploaded on 01/23/2012 for the course GGS 311 taught by Professor Dr.rice during the Fall '11 term at George Mason.

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GeoReferencing - GGS 311: Introduction to Geographic...

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