Temperate Coastal Seas

Temperate Coastal Seas - Temperate Coastal Seas More than...

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Temperate Coastal Seas
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More than 90% of marine animals are benthic : - living in close association with the seafloor - living at the interface with the overlying water - or are dependent on the characteristics of each and the exchange of substances between the two. Collectively these organisms are called Benthos.
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The composition of the sea bottom is determined by its constituent materials accumulation of plankton, waste material, and detritus the activities of organisms that live there i.e. excavation of burrows the amount of available energy in waves and currents at the sea surface in shallow waters. Seabed characteristics
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Sandstone erosion pits created by the rasping actions of small chitons.
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Benthic animals are either epifaunal , living on the sediment, or infaunal , living within the sediment . Animal-Sediment Relationships
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A benthic lifestyle does not necessarily limit the geographic of these species. Some species can hitch rides to new locations. 75% of slow-moving, sedentary, or attached (sessile) benthic invertebrates extend their geographic range by broadcast spawning of eggs and sperm that will result in larvae that are temporarily planktonic (=MEROPLANKTONIC). Typically remain planktonic for 2-4 weeks Larval Dispersal
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Typical duration of planktonic existence for four common groups of marine benthic invertebrates.
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Factors that effect settlement: bottom type, bottom texture, chemical attractants, current speeds, sounds, light, and presence of conspecific adults The settled larvae then metamorphose into a juvenile form. For each extra day the larvae remain in the plankton, they are exposed to: -additional threats of predation -increased pressures of finding food -more likely currents carry them to unsuitable area Larval Dispersal
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Several major environmental factors that influence the selection of suitable bottom types by planktonic larvae.
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Daily fluctuations in tidal heights result in an intertidal, or littoral, zone forming on all shorelines, regardless of slope or texture. This zone is inhabited by species of marine origin that experience physiological stress during periods of low tide . Being out of the water and exposed to air= EMERSION Being submerged under water = IMMERSION The bottom substrate (e.g. soft or rocky) and the effects of the tide are two of the main factors which effect intertidal communities. Intertidal Communities
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Rocky Shores Exposure curves for the Pacific coast of the United States and the Atlantic coast of England .
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Rocky Shores Generally occur in steep sloping areas without much sediment e.g. active margins where geological processes are lifting land Rocky shores may also occur in areas with outcrops of hard exposed rock, Or where the action of the sea has removed sediment leaving bare rock behind. As rock is a hard substrate which makes
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Temperate Coastal Seas - Temperate Coastal Seas More than...

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