5 Soil Forming Factors - 4 Soil Processes

5 Soil Forming Factors - 4 Soil Processes -...

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Unformatted text preview: The
five
soil
forming
factors
 •  All
interact
to
form
the
different
types
of
soil
 The
five
soil
forming
factors
 •  Parental
material
 •  Can
be
rock

 –  Bedrock
 –  Residual
soils
 •  Transported
material
‐
not
in
place
 –  Transported
soils
 The
five
soil
forming
factors
 •  Limestone
 sandstone
 basalt
 The
five
soil
forming
factors
 •  Time
 The
five
soil
forming
factors
 •  Climate
 –  Warm
and
wet
encourages
chemical
weathering
 –  Deeper
soils
 –  BUT
ions
can
be
leached
out
‐
may
become
inferCle
 The
five
soil
forming
factors
 •  Plants
and
animals
 The
five
soil
forming
factors
 •  Topography
(slope)
 Soil
Profile
 •  O‐horizon
(zone
of
organic
material)
 •  A‐horizon
(zone
of
leaching)
 •  E‐horizon
(zone
of
eluviaCon)
 •  B‐horizon
(zone
of
accumulaCon)
 •  C‐horizon
(broken
bedrock)
 Soil
Profile
 •  O‐horizon
(zone
of
 organic
material)
 Soil
Profile
 •  A‐horizon
(zone
of
 leaching)
 Soil
Profile
 •  B‐horizon
(zone
of
 accumulaCon)
 Soil
Profile
 •  C‐horizon
(broken
 bedrock)
 Soil
Profile
 •  E‐horizon
(zone
of
 eluviaCon)
 Soil
Profile
 types
of
soils

 •  “loam”
 –  composed of sand : silt ; clay –  relatively even concentration •  about 40-40-20% –  considered ideal for gardening and agricultural uses.
 loam
 12
orders
 
4
soil
processes
 TransformaCons
 •  Soil
consCtuents
 –  Chemically
of
physically
modified
 –  Or
destroyed
 –  New
minerals
/
material
made
 •  Weathering
of
primary
minerals
 •  Silicate
clay
is
formed
 •  Hydroxides
and
oxides
 •  Organic
materials

 TranslocaCons
 •  Movement
of
organic
and
inorganic
materials
 laterally
and
verCcally
 –  Usually
water
 –  Up
and
down
–
capillary
 OWen
clays
to
“B”
 •  Soil
animals
move
materials
 AddiCons
 •  Organic
 –  Fallen
 •  Mineral
 –  dust
 Losses
 •  Leaching
to
groundwater
 •  Erosion
of
the
surface
 –  By
water,
wind,
etc
 •  EvaporaCon
 •  Plant
removal
 ...
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