Clays - CATION EXCHANGE CAPACITY CLAY MINERALS And clay...

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CATION EXCHANGE CAPACITY CLAY MINERALS And clay – sized fraction The very very very small
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Kaolinite – a clay mineral • stacks of hexagonal sheets shown here are a characteristic of many clay minerals. • Bar is 50 μ m 1/1,000,000 m 1/1000 mm http://www.reading.ac.uk/cfam/ imageofthemonth/2008/ February2008.htm
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What is 50 μ m micrometer ( μ ) = 1/1000,000 of a meter
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Clay fraction • Usually clay minerals - but not all – Includes all minerals – Includes organics • Less than 0.002mm
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Clay fraction • 1) are small in size – The external surface alone of a unit weight of a clay soil is at least 1000 times that of the same weight of coarse sand.
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• 2) remain suspended for long periods. – Days – If never settle – colloid • 3) clay minerals the dominant part of the “clay-sized fraction” >0.002 mm.
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• 4) may be mineralic (the clays) or organic (humus), – and are often closely intermixed.
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• 5) are flocculated by electrolytes • Flocculation - combination of individual particles into little clumps called floccules.
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WHAT ARE COLLOIDS?? • Some of these particles are so small they are colloidal • BUT some are larger • ALL are less than 0.002 mm
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Colloidal – suspended not dissolved • heterogeneous material • structures 1 μ m or less • Mixture of 2 phases of matter
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Foams can be colloidal • Foams – air-in-liquid colloids • shaving cream • beer froth • Aerosols • Ice cream is a foam with air-bubbles in a continuous matrix of sugar and fat.
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Emulsions Emulsions – Liquid -in-liquid colloids • mayonnaise • milk • cosmetics
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Dispersions • Dispersions – solid-in-liquid colloids • ink • paint • Sewage – colloids contain an overwhelmingly large number of charged particles that attract and repel each other in very unusual ways.
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This note was uploaded on 01/23/2012 for the course GEOL 306 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '08 term at George Mason.

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Clays - CATION EXCHANGE CAPACITY CLAY MINERALS And clay...

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