Twelve Soil Orders

Twelve Soil Orders - Twelve
Soil
orders
...

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Unformatted text preview: Twelve
Soil
orders
 Pictures
from
NRCS
 Natural
Resources
Conserva8on
Service
 h:p://soils.usda.gov/technical/classifica8on/orders/
 En8sol
–
rec”ent”
 Soils
that
have
li:le
or
no
evidence
of
 development
of
pedogenic
horizons.

 Many
are
sandy
or
very
shallow.
 Mountains
etc
 Incep8sol
 L.
Inceptum
‐
beginning
 Beginning
soils
 Few
diagnos8c
horizons
 Alfisol
 Old
classifica8on
–
pedalfer
 Mature,
well
weathered
 Deciduous
/
savannah
 Bases
are
high
 .

 Ul8sol
 L.
“ul8mus”
‐
last
 Mature
soil
 Good
horizona8on
 B
horizon
contains
an
appreciable
 amount
of
translocated
silicate
clay
 Weathered
‐
few
bases
 Mollisol
 L.
“mollis”
soU
 Soils
that
have
a
dark
colored
 surface
horizon
and
are
base
rich.
 Grasslands
‐
prairie
soil
 Deep
“A”
 Rich
in
bases
 fer8le
 Aridosol
 L.
“aridos”
dry
 Too
dry
for
mesophy8c
(moderately
moist)
 plants
to
grow.
They
have
either:
 (1)  an
aridic
moisture
regime
or
 (2)  A
salic
horizon

 (3)  NOT
cold
 Andisol
 think
“andes”
 Japanese
“ando

 black
soil
 They
include
weakly
weathered
soils
on
 volcanic
glass,
ash
and
cinders
 Fairly
recent
 Oxisol
 oxide
 Soils
of
the
tropical
and
subtropical
 regions.
Poorly
fer8le
 Aluminum
or
iron
oxides
 
They
are
nearly
featureless
without
clearly
 marked
horizons.

 Bauxite
and
laterite
 Histosol
 “histos”
GK
8ssue
 Soils
that
are
dominantly
organic.
They
are
 mostly
soils
that
are
commonly
called
bogs,
 moors,
or
peats
and
mucks.
 A
soil
is
classified
as
Histosols
if
it
does
not
 have
permafrost
and
is
dominated
by
organic
 soil
materials.
 Anaerobic
generally
 Ver8sol
 “verto”
turn
L.
 Inverted
 Soils
that
have
a
high
content
of
 expending
clay
 • have
at
some
8me
of
the
year
deep
 wide
cracks.

 • They
shrink
when
drying
and
swell
 when
they
become
we:er.
 Spodosol
 Spodos
–
wood
ash
 Acid,
sandy
forest
soil
 Highly
leached
–
NOTE
“E”
 Mainly
in
cold
coniferous
/
boreal
forests.
 Usually
gray
to
light
gray
in
color
“ash”,
that
has
 the
color
of
more
or
less
uncoated
quartz.
 Podzol
 Gelisol
 gelid
–
Greek
cold
 Soils
that
have
permafrost
within
100
cm
 of
the
soil
surface.
 Evidence
of
cryoturba8on
(frost
churning)

 and/or
ice
segrega8on
in
the
ac8ve
layer
 (seasonal
thaw
layer)
 ...
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This note was uploaded on 01/23/2012 for the course GEOL 306 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '08 term at George Mason.

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