6715_Lecture2 - Lecture II 1 2 3 4 5 6 Biological...

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1 PHYS 6715 - Lecture II 1 Lecture II Biological Macromolecules 1. Introduction 2. Nuclear Acids 3. Proteins 4. Carbohydrates 5. Lipids 6. Molecular basis of cancer PHYS 6715 - Lecture II 2 II-1 Introduction Definition Macromolecules are large molecules with typically more than 100 atoms and often contain carbon atoms with multiple covalent bonds and lead to a huge variety of molecules of different shapes. Carbon atoms are ubiquitous in organic molecules for their ability to form covalent bonds with other atoms. PHYS 6715 - Lecture II 3 II-1 Introduction Units Number unit : Mole=(M or mole): 1(M)=6.022x10 23 atoms or molecules Æ molecular mass or weight = the mass of 1(M) of molecules = A (g) where A is the total mass numbers of all atoms in one molecule. Mass unit : Dalton=(Da): 1 (Da)= 1.66053873x10 -27 (kg) Æ one 12 C atom: 12.000000 Da Æ one amino acid: 110 Da Æ one bp of DNA: 1.5kDa Æ one protease (enzyme conducting proteolysis) of 450 amino acids: ~50 kDa Force unit : piconewton=(pN): 1(pN)=1x10 -12 (N) Length unit : nanometer=(nm): 1(nm)=1x10 -9 (m) Energy unit : electron-volt=(eV): 1(eV)=1.6x10 -19 (J)=160 (pN-nm) Æ energy to produce one ATP is 100 (pN-nm) Æ thermal energy k B T = 4 (pN-nm) @T=300(K) PHYS 6715 - Lecture II 4 II-1 Introduction Monomers, oligomers, polymers Monomer (~ 100 Da): often are small organic molecules capable of bonding chemically to other monomers to form larger molecules: monomeric proteins Æ multiprotein complex. glucoses Æ starch Dimers: each contains two identical monomers or compounds Oligomer: each contains a few monomers Polymers (100kDa): each contains numerous repeating structural units made of small molecules: homopolymers - contain only a single type of repeat units copolymers - containing a mixture of repeat units PHYS 6715 - Lecture II 5 II-1 Introduction Monomers, oligomers, polymers http://chem.chem.rochester.edu/~chem421/propsmw.htm PHYS 6715 - Lecture II 6 II-1 Introduction Three major types of macromolecules in mammalian systems Polymer units - Proteins - Nucleic acids - Carbohydrates (sugars) Corresponding monomer units - amino acids - nucleotides - monosaccharides
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2 PHYS 6715 - Lecture II 7 II-1 Introduction Three major types of macromolecules in mammalian systems - Nucleic acids: store and transmit genetic information within a living cell. - Carbohydrates: provide a universal energy source for life systems. - Proteins: every function in a living cell depends on proteins : motion and locomotion of cells and organisms depends on contractile proteins (muscles); the catalysis of all biochemical reactions is done by enzymes; cellular structures and the extracellular matrix (collagens); transport of materials in body fluids (hemoglobins); receptors and signaling molecules; transcription factors that turn genes on and off to guide the differentiation of the cell and its later responsiveness to signals reaching it are proteins ...
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