6715_Lecture7 - Lecture VII 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Tissue Optics...

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1 PHYS 6715 - Lecture VII 1 Lecture VII Tissue Optics – Basic Concepts 1. Introduction 2. Radiative transfer model 3. Boundary conditions 4. Beer-Lambert law 5. Monte Carlo methods 6. Inverse determination of optical parameters PHYS 6715 - Lecture VII 2 VII-1 Introduction Major types of tissues • Epithelial Tissue: The cells pack tightly and form continuous sheets that serve as linings in different parts of the body. Epithelial tissue serve as membranes lining organs and helping to keep the body's organs separate, in place and protected. Æ the skin epidermis, the inside of the mouth and stomach, and the tissue surrounding the body's organs. • Connective Tissue: These can be divided into many sub-types which provide support and structure to the body. Most connective tissue contain collagen fibers as mechanical structure elements. Æ the skin dermis, tendons, ligaments, cartilage, bone, fat tissues and blood. PHYS 6715 - Lecture VII 3 VII-1 Introduction Major types of tissues • Muscle Tissue: a specialized tissue that can contract. Muscle tissue contains the specialized proteins actin and myosin that slide past one another and allow movement. • Nerve Tissue: contains two types of cells: neurons and glial cells. Nerve tissue has the ability to generate and conduct electrical signals in the body. These electrical messages are managed by nerve tissue in the brain and transmitted down the spinal cord to the body. PHYS 6715 - Lecture VII 4 VII-1 Introduction Tissue Compositions • Extracellular matrix: in many animal tissues such as connective tissues extracellular protein fiber networks embedded in polysaccharide gel form as matrices in which cells are embedded • Junctions : in certain tissues such as epithelial tissues the plasma membranes of adjacent cells are pressed together and form 4 types of junctions in vertebrates: - tight junctions (lung epithelia): blocking movement of ions and molecules between cells Æ they can only diffuse through cells - adherens junctions (cardiac muscle ): provide strong mechanical bonding between cells to stand high-intensity motion - gap junctions : intercellular channels with diameters ~ 1.5 to 2nm for transportation of ions and small molecules (< 1000 daltons). - desmosomes (skin epidermis): localized patches that hold two cells tightly together PHYS 6715 - Lecture VII 5 VII-1 Introduction Tissue Compositions http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/J/Junctions.html PHYS 6715 - Lecture VII 6 VII-1 Introduction Cancer classification • Cancers can be classified according to the tissue types for their origin • Carcinoma–originates in epithelial tissue (i.e., tissue that lines organs and tubes) skin cancers (squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma), melanoma, renal cell carcinoma … • Adenocarcinoma – carcinoma originates in glandular tissue colon cancer, lung cancer, prostate cancer, breast cancer, pancreas cancer … • Blastoma – originates in embryonic tissue (precursor cells or blasts) of organs hepatoblastoma, pancreatoblastoma, neuroblastoma …
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6715_Lecture7 - Lecture VII 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Tissue Optics...

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