Topic7 - HLTH 101 Fall 2011 1 T OPIC 7: CHANGES IN HEALTH...

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HLTH 101 Fall 2011 1 TOPIC 7: CHANGES IN HEALTH THROUGH EMERGING AND RE-EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASES 3: CURRENT AND EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASES THAT THREATEN HUMAN HEALTH In previous topics, we’ve been discussing general features of microbial biology and infectious diseases. In this lecture, we’ll look at some of the current issues in specific infectious diseases. We’ll begin with a brief survey of some of the current or emerging plagues of concern: AIDS, influenza (the flu), and malaria. In each case, you should know the characteristics that make the diseases difficult to control. We’ll see that, although the diseases are relatively hard to control and prevent completely, the incidence can be lowered substantially by appropriate public health measures. If you have difficulty with this concept, go back and re-read the previous section on the public health model and its foundation in the population health approach. We’ll then look at an example of an issue that signals a failure of the health care system to understand the limits of a strict biomedical approach to health intervention: the rise in drug resistant infections. We’ll see that there are basic evolutionary concepts that explain how new strains of microbes can evolve to be resistant to antibiotic and antiviral drugs. Then we’ll discuss four specific examples of drug resistant bacteria, and we’ll see that these problems have resulted from human actions and behaviour and could have been prevented. We’ll also see that there are attempts to reduce the threat posed by these infections. Our final topic is biowarfare, and we’ll begin by summarizing some of the advantages and disadvantages of using microbes as potential weapons. We’ll then review two so-called likely candidates for biological weapons: anthrax and smallpox. Be sure you know the reasons why these two diseases would make suitable weapons.
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Fall 2011 2 RECOMMENDED READINGS: The material in this topic can be further researched via the sources provided in the previous topics. Below are some specific links to the topics discussed in this lecture: 1. HIV/AIDS from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases http://www.niaid.nih.gov/topics/hivaids/understanding/Pag es/Default.aspx 2. Influenza from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases http://www.niaid.nih.gov/topics/Flu/understandingFlu/Pages/defaul t.aspx 3. Malaria from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases http://www.niaid.nih.gov/topics/Malaria/understandingMalaria/Pag es/facts.aspx 4. Antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases http://www.niaid.nih.gov/topics/antimicrobialResistance/Pages/de fault.aspx 5. Infectious Agents and Biological Warfare from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases http://www.niaid.nih.gov/topics/BiodefenseRelated/Biodefense/Do cuments/biotresearchagenda.pdf This pdf is a difficult document to link to directly. It may not open
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This note was uploaded on 01/20/2012 for the course HLTH 101 taught by Professor Ward during the Spring '08 term at Waterloo.

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Topic7 - HLTH 101 Fall 2011 1 T OPIC 7: CHANGES IN HEALTH...

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