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Unformatted text preview: INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY PSYCHOLOGY Definition Definition Psychology is scientific study of behavior and mental processes. PERSPECTIVES PERSPECTIVES 1. BIOLOGICAL: Biological perspective is the scientific study of the biological bases of behavior and mental states, very closely related to neuroscience. neuroscience 2. The psychoanalytic perspective: The The psychoanalytic perspective originated with the work of Sigmund Freud. This perspective emphasizes the role of the unconscious mind, early childhood experiences, and interpersonal relationships to explain human behavior and to treat people suffering from mental illnesses. 3. Behavioral Perspective: Behavioral Behavioral psychology is a perspective that focuses on learned behaviors. Today, the behavioral perspective is still concerned with how behaviors are learned and reinforced. John Watson founded behaviorism in John the early 1900's. Watson emphasized the scientific study of observable behaviors rather then the study of subjective mental process. 4. Humanistic Perspective: Humanistic During the 1950s, a school of thought known as humanistic psychology emerged. Influenced greatly by humanistic the work of prominent humanists such as Carl Rogers Carl and Abraham Maslow, this perspective emphasizes the role of motivation on thought and behavior. 5. Cognitive Perspective: During the 1960s, a new perspective known as cognitive psychology began to take hold. This area of cognitive psychology focuses on mental processes such as memory, thinking, problem solving, language and decision-making. 6. Social cultural Perspective: Social The sociocultural perspective maintains that behavior and mental processes are shaped not only by prior learning experiences (the behavioral perspective) or intra-psychic forces (for instance, the unconscious) but also by the social or cultural context. HISTORY OF PSYCHOLOGY HISTORY 1. Structuralism: Structuralism was the first school of psychology and focused on breaking down mental processes into the most basic components. Researchers tried to understand the basic elements of consciousness using a method known as introspection. Wilhelm Wundt, founder of the first Wundt founder psychology lab, was an advocate of this position and is often considered the founder of structuralism, despite the fact that it was his student, Edward Titchener who first coined the term to describe this school of thought. 2. Functionalism: Functionalism: Functionalism is an early approach to psychology that concerned with what the mind does-the functions of mental activitymind and the role of behavior in allowing people and to adapt to their environment. to 3. Gestalt Psychology: Gestalt Gestalt psychology is a school of thought that looks at the human mind and behavior as a whole. Originating in the work of Max Wertheimer, Gestalt psychology formed partially as a response to the structuralism of Wilhelm Wundt. The development of Wundt The this area of psychology was influenced by a number of thinkers, including Immanuel Kant, Ernst Mach and Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. 4. Psychodynamic Model: Psychodynamic the approach based on the belief that behavior is motivated by unconscious inner forces over which the individual has little control. Key features of the Psychodynamic approach are: Key – Our behavior and feelings as adults are rooted in our childhood Our experiences. – Relationships (particularly parenting) are of primary importance in Relationships determining how we feel and behave. – Our behavior and feelings are powerfully affected by the meaning of Our events to the unconscious mind. – Information can be obtained from dreams, irrational behavior and what Information patients in therapy say. – The personality is made up of three distinct structures: id, ego and super The ego. – Defense mechanisms are used to protect the ego, e.g. repression. Defense – Children develop through a series of fixed stages: oral, anal and phallic. Children 5. Huministic Model: Huministic Developed by Rogers and Maslow in the 1950s Assumptions: Assumptions: A healthy mental attitude is dependent on taking personal healthy responsibility, recognising the existence of free will, and striving towards personal growth and fulfilment. Individuals have a need for self actualisation. self People are naturally good, with the potential for personal growth if they are provided with the appropriate circumstances. Rogers (1959): if in early life children receive unconditional positive regard they will develop satisfactorily. However, if they positive experience conditions of worth, they are prevented from conditions they realising their potential and becoming self-actualised. People use distorted thinking to defend themselves, e.g., by rationalisation, that is distorting their real motives to fit in with their self-concept. 6. Behaviorism: Behaviorism: The approach that suggests that observable behavior should be the focus. observable This perspective views behavior (except for This genetically determined behavior) as the result of environmental experience! Environmental experience (also called learning) is the sum total of all life experiences that the individual has been subjected to in the past and to the new experiences that will impinge on his or her behavior. behavior. 7. Cognitive Model: Cognitive Studies mental processes including how people think, perceive, remember and learn. As part of the larger field of cognitive science, this branch of psychology is related to other disciplines including neuroscience, philosophy, and linguistics. FIELDS OF PSYCHOLOGY FIELDS 1. Experimental Psychology: a general title applied to a variety of psychologists who are trained in designing and conducting research in specific basic areas like learning, sensation and perception, human performance, and motivation and emotion. A research oriented doctoral degree (Ph.D.) is usually needed. 2. Biopsychology: Biopsychology: Take a comparative and ontogenetic perspective in the experimental analysis of basic psychological processes as they relate to the many ways in which animal species adapt, survive, reproduce and evolve. 3. Developmental Psychology: 3. Concerned with growth and development from conception till death. All aspects of the animal or human organism (physiological, biological, physical, cognitive, emotional, social, cultural) may be studied. 4. Social Psychology: Social study the ways in which the social context affects the behavior of the individual and groups in the real world and the laboratory. Social psychologists focus on topics such as social roles, attitude formation and change, affiliation, interpersonal attraction and interaction, conformity, and group processes. 5. Industrial / Organizational Psychologists: Industrial are concerned with the relation between individuals and work. They are employed in business and industry, in government, and in colleges and universities, and may perform a variety of jobs. An industrial/organizational psychologist working in industry may study how work is organized; suggest changes to improve the satisfaction of employees, the quality of the organization's services, and productivity; consult with management on the development of effective training programs for employees; design programs for the early identification of management potential; administer career counseling and pre retirement counseling programs; develop affirmative action programs; recommend changes in job definition; design a system of performance evaluation. 6. Educational Psychologists: Educational are concerned with a range of activities from initial design through development and evaluation of both materials and procedures for education and training. Such positions exist in public schools, in the military, in private research and development companies, and in industrial concerns. They may deal with analyzing education and training needs, with developing materials for instruction in various media, with designing the best conditions for instruction, and with evaluating the effectiveness of instructional programs. 7. Clinical Psychologists: 7. Clinical are concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disturbances. After graduate preparation in an accredited university or school of professional psychology, supervised postdoctoral experience, and licensure or certification by the state, some clinical psychologists enter independent practice/consulting roles. Others find themselves responsible for a complete range of psychological services in public settings. Their responsibilities range from administering and scoring psychological tests, to engaging in therapy, to supervising the training of graduate students in the delivery of mental health services, to administering a community mental health program. Some clinical psychologists obtain faculty positions in a college or university where they perform research and train graduate students. Others serve as adjunct (or partand time) faculty, while maintaining independent clinical practices. time) Many serve as consultants. 8. Counseling Psychologists: Counseling are concerned with counseling, teaching, consulting research, and/or administration. In their work, they are particularly concerned with the role of education and work in an individual's functioning, and with the interaction between individuals and the environments in which they live. Typically, counseling psychologists work with normal or moderately maladjusted persons, individually or in groups. This work includes use of traditional counseling interview methods, interest, ability and personality tests, and educational and occupational information. 9. Cross-cultural psychology Cross-cultural Is a branch of psychology that looks at how cultural factors influence human behavior. Learn more about what cross-cultural psychology is and who should study it. 10. Forensic Psychology: Forensic It is defined as an intersection between psychology and the criminal justice system. It is applied to the criminal justice system to evaluate the psychology of the defendants. 11. Environmental psychology: Environmental is an interdisciplinary field focused on the interplay between humans and their surroundings. The field defines the term environment very broadly including all that is natural on the planet as well as social settings, built environments, learning environments and informational environments. 12. Psychiatry: 12. Psychiatry is a medical specialty devoted Psychiatry medical specialty to the treatment, study and prevention of treatment study prevention mental disorder. They can prescribe mental They medicines. They are MBBS Doctors. medicines. 13. Psychology of Women 13. Psychology This class explores the female experience within the world. Many times people ask why there isn't a Psychology of Men class. There are plenty of them, as most classes are designed with the male as the baseline. This class looks at how women differ from the baseline and how the female experience is also valid in its own right, not as just an "other." METHODS OF PYCHOLOGY PYCHOLOGY 1. CASE HISTORY: 1. An in-depth study of one person. In a case study, nearly every aspect of the subject’s life and history is analyzed to seek patterns and causes for behavior. The hope is that learning gained from studying one case can be generalized to many others. Unfortunately, case studies tend to be highly subjective and it is difficult to generalize results to a larger population. 2. NATURALISTIC OBSERVATION: 2. Naturalistic observation is a method of observation, commonly used by psychologists, behavioral scientists and psychologists behavioral social scientists, that involves observing social that subjects in their natural habitats. natural Researchers take great care in avoiding making interferences with the behavior they are observing by using unobtrusive unobtrusive methods. Objectively, studying events as they occur naturally, without intervention. 3. SURVEY METHOD: 3. Survey is a method of scientific investigation in which a large sample of people answer questions about their attitudes or behavior. 4. EXPERIMENTAL METHOD: 4. The experimental method involves manipulating one variable to determine if changes in one variable cause changes in another variable. This method relies on controlled methods, random assignment and the manipulation of variables to test a hypothesis. An experiment is a study of cause and effect. It cause differs from non-experimental methods in that it involves the deliberate manipulation of one variable, while trying to keep all other variables constant. variables Parts of a Simple Experiment: Parts The experimental hypothesis: a statement that predicts that the treatment The will cause an effect. The experimental hypothesis will always be phrased as a cause-and-effect statement. The independent variable: the treatment variable that is manipulated by The the experimenter. (stimulus) (stimulus) The dependent variable: the response that the experimenter is measuring. (response) (response) The control group: made up of individuals who are randomly assigned to a group but do not receive the treatment. The measures takes from the control group are then compared to those in the experimental group to determine if the treatment had an effect. The experimental group: made up of individuals who are randomly The assigned to the group and then receive the treatment. The scores of these participants are compared to those in the control group to determine if the treatment had an effect. For example: For Hypothesis: an aspirin a day reduces the likelihood of a heart attack. Independent variable: Aspirin Independent Dependent Variable: the number of heart attacks. Dependent The experimental group: would take an aspirin each The day day The control group: would take a placebo, such as a sugar pill, that resembles an aspirin but has none of the effects attributed to aspirin. After a few months or years of pill-taking, the number of heart attacks would be measured as the dependent variable. If the aspirin-takers (experimental group) had a significantly smaller number of heart attacks than the placebo-takers (control group), then the research hypothesis (aspirin-taking reduces heart attacks) would be supported. 5. CORRELATION: 5. Correlation studies are used to look for relationships Correlation between variables. There are three possible results of a co relational study: a positive correlation, a negative correlation, and no correlation. The correlation coefficient is a measure of correlation strength and can range from –1.00 to +1.00. Positive Correlations: Both variables increase or Positive decrease at the same time. A correlation coefficient close to +1.00 indicates a strong positive correlation. close Negative Correlations: Indicates that as the amount of one variable increases, the other decreases (and vice versa). A correlation coefficient close to -1.00 indicates a strong negative correlation. indicates ...
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This note was uploaded on 01/20/2012 for the course ECON 501 taught by Professor Ibrar during the Summer '11 term at University of the Punjab.

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