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Unformatted text preview: THINKING
• Thinking are mental forms and processes, respectively.
• Thinking allows beings to model the world and to deal with it according to their objectives
, plans, ends and desires. • Thinking involves the mental manipulation of information, as when we form concepts, engage in problem solving, reason and make decisions. TYPES OF THINKING
TYPES OF THINKING
• Autistic thinking preoccupation with inner thoughts, daydreams, fantasies, private logic; egocentric, subjective thinking lacking objectivity and connection with external reality. • Realistic Thinking is controlled, constructive, directive, realistic and factual based thinking. COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY
• Cognitive psychology is the branch of psychology that studies mental processes including how people think, perceive, remember and learn. As part of the larger field of cognitive science, this branch of psychology is related to other disciplines including neuroscience, philosophy, and linguistics. COGNITIVE COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY AND COMPUTER SCIENCES Computer programming potentially involves understanding
understanding (application context and possibility), planning (design), imaging
(imagination and visualization), attitude (acceptance of work
involved and confidence in completing projects), logic
(conceptualization, language use, and knowledge), creativity
(artistry) and work (persistance, exploration, purpose and
commitment). It adds together small steps of progress that may reach
vast distances and a seemingly endless vista. Computer programming
involves some of the same skills as writing (creativity, sequence,
logic), offers tests as regimental as athletics or the military (in a
demanding environment) and yields products that function as
engineered tools (manufactured objects) capable of multiplying the
effect of one who uses the programs. Computer programming perhaps
more than any other manufacturing endeavor begins with a thought
and through skilled application of knowledge yields an intrinsically
proven object that is itself almost mental (encoded electrical
information). Work that is so much a product of thought may benefit
from cognitive psychology, the study of mental processes. Though the
present report focuses on computer programming, the applications of
cognitive psychology will be seen to benefit other mental work as
well. • Uses of Cognitive Psychology in Computer Programming
• Understanding, Planning, and Logic – Capacity – Knowledge – Association – Objects • Imaging and Creativity – Analogies for program functions • Attitude and Work – Behavior Artificial Intelligence
• Artificial intelligence (AI) involves the study of cognitive phenomena in machines. One of the practical goals of AI is to implement aspects of human intelligence in computers. Computers are also widely used as a tool with which to study cognitive phenomena. Computational modeling uses simulations to study how human intelligence may be structured. Tools of Thoughts:
Tools of Thoughts:
Language is a form of communication that is:
• Based on system of symbols.
• Through written and spoken.
Rules of language:
(study of language by sound system)
(they are meaningful strings of sound • Morphology
that contains no smaller meaningful parts)
(the way words are combined to form • Syntax
acceptable phrases and sentences)
• Semantics (giving meaning to your words) Decision making
• Decision making can be regarded as an outcome of mental processes (
cognitive process) leading to the selection of a course of action among several alternatives. Every decision making process produces a final choice. The output can be an action or an opinion of choice. 1.
8. TECHNIQUES OF DECISION TECHNIQUES OF DECISION MAKING Identify the purpose of your decision. Gather information. Identify the principles to judge the alternatives. Brainstorm and list different possible choices. Evaluate each choice in terms of its consequences. Determine the best alternative. Put the decision into action. Evaluate the outcome of your decision and action steps. PROBLEM SOLVING
• Problem solving forms part of thinking. Considered
the most complex of all intellectual functions,
problem solving has been defined as higher-order
cognitive process that requires the modulation and
control of more routine or fundamental skills.  It
occurs if an organism or an artificial intelligence
system does not know how to proceed from a given
state to a desired goal state. It is part of the larger
problem process that includes problem finding and
problem Types of Problems:
Problems are categorized in three ways:
• Arrangement Problems require the problem solver to rearrange or
recombine elements in a way that will satisfy a certain criterion. For
example scrabble in which we arrange different letters to make word.
• Inducing structure requires a solver to identify the existing
relationship among the elements presented and then construct a new
relationship among them.
• Transformation problems gives you only the start and end state and
the procedure or method to be followed, for example the problem of
tower of Hanoi, in which 52 rings are to placed using the 3 pegs only
with the condition that you cannot place a bigger ring on the smaller
Such problems are solved by the knowledge, Insight and hit and
trial method (trial and error). Through practicing we can make our
problem solving skills better. Problem Solving (IDEAL)
Problem Solving (IDEAL)
• John Branford and Berry Stain introduced the IDEAL
method, a very basic type of method, for solving a
problem:problem:• I = Identify your problem.
• D = Define, specify and present your problem.
• E = Explore possible strategies.
• A = Act on the explored strategies and plans.
• L = Look back and evaluate the results. Problem solving methods are classified Problem solving methods are classified as:
• Heuristics Algorithm is an approach to find a step by step solution
to a problem. It is a rule that if applied appropriately,
guarantees a solution to a problem.
Example of algorithmic approach:
You have given the two sides of a right angle triangle
and have to find the third side. You have to ponder on
the problem that is you are going to think on it and
the steps will almost be:
• Make a shape of right angle triangle in your mind
• Get the length of the base of triangle.
• Get the perpendicular of the triangle.
• Now you will apply the Pythagoras theorem.
• Finally, you will get a correct result.
Finally, Heuristic is a rule of thumb that can suggest a solution
to a problem but it does not ensure that it will solve
the problem. It is a cognitive shortcut that may lead to
Example of the heuristic approach:
You are playing tic-tac-toe, when you are going to
start the game you will the cross at the center… why?
The past experiences shows that placing your cross at
the center will increase the probability of winning the
game, again that does not ensure that you are going to
win the game.
• Reasoning is the cognitive process of looking for reasons for beliefs, conclusions, actions or feelings. Although reasoning was once thought to be a uniquely human capability, other animals also engage in reasoning. • The mental activity of transforming information to reach conclusion. Deductive Reasoning
• Reasoning from general to specific. It begins with the
series of assumptions or premises that are thought to
be true. If assumptions are true then conclusion must
One classic example of deductive reasoning is that
found in syllogisms like the following:
– Premise 1: All humans are mortal.
– Premise 2: Socrates is a human.
– Conclusion: Socrates is mortal. Inductive Reasoning
• Reasoning from specific to general. It is a reasoning process
where by a general rule is inferred from specific cases using
Observation Knowledge and experience.
A classic example of inductive reasoning
– Premise: The sun has risen in the east every morning up until now.
– Conclusion: The sun will also rise in the east tomorrow. Creative Thinking
• Preparation where much of the work is done. • Incubation the process of thinking about a problem subconsciously while being involved in other activities.
• Illumination where the idea or ideas come to you suddenly. • Application where you work out the creative idea and turn it into something worthwhile. Traits of Creative People
Traits of Creative People
Intrinsic motivation Why We Give up Being Creative?
• Convergent thinking is encouraged where as divergent thinking is neglected. ...
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This note was uploaded on 01/20/2012 for the course ECON 501 taught by Professor Ibrar during the Summer '11 term at University of the Punjab.
- Summer '11