Exam 1 Google Doc - Chapter 1 1. Discuss how the terms...

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Chapter 1 1. Discuss how the terms actions and movements are related to motor skills. Give an example that illustrates this relationship. a. Actions - activities or tasks that require voluntary head, body, and/or limb movement to achieve a goal i. In the motor learning and control research literature, a term that has become increasingly common is the term actions → Used interchangeably and synonymously with the term motor skills b. Movements - behavioral characteristics of specific limbs or a combination of limbs that are component parts of an action or motor skill i. Ex: Our arms and legs move in different and distinct ways when we walk on a concrete sidewalk and when we walk on an icy sidewalk -- or on a sandy beach. However, although the actual movements may differ, the motor skill we perform in each of these different situations is walking. 2. What are three reasons for distinguishing between actions and movements? a. People learn actions especially when they begin to learn or relearn motor skills i. Although people must produce movements to perform a motor skill, different people may move in different ways to achieve the same action goal b. People adapt movement characteristics to achieve a common action goal i. People differ in physical features that limit the movement characteristics they can produce to perform a skill c. People evaluate motor skill performance and movements with different types of measures i. We typically evaluate motor skill performance in terms of measures that relate to its outcome (distance a person walked, the length of time it took a person to run a certain distance, number of points a basketball shot was worth) ii. Movements are evaluated by measures that relate to specific characteristics of body, head, limb, and/or muscle activity (kinematic, kinetic, electromyographic [EMG] measures) 3. Describe the one dimension that distinguishes the two categories in each of the following skill classification schemes, and give three examples of motor skills for each category: (a) gross vs. fine motor skills; (b) discrete vs. continuous motor skills; (c) closed vs. open motor skills. a. Gross vs. Fine Motor Skills i. One characteristic that distinguishes categories of motor skills is the size of the primary muscle groups required to perform the skill ii. Gross motor skills - a motor skill that requires the use of large musculature to achieve the goal of the skill → walking, jumping, throwing, leaping, etc. iii. Fine motor skills - a motor skill that requires control of small muscles to achieve the goal of the skill; typically involves eye-hand coordination and requires a high degree of precision of hand and finger movement → Handwriting, typing, drawing, sewing, and fastening a button b. Discrete vs. Continuous Motor skills i. The specificity of where movements of a skill begin and end ii. Discrete - a motor skill with clearly defined movement beginning and end points, usually requiring a simple movement → flipping a light switch,
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This note was uploaded on 01/21/2012 for the course KIN 315 taught by Professor Abraham during the Spring '08 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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Exam 1 Google Doc - Chapter 1 1. Discuss how the terms...

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