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Exam 2 Google Doc - KIN315 Exam II Review Chapter 9 1...

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KIN315 Exam II Review Chapter 9 1. Discuss two different dual-task techniques that researchers use to assess the attention demands of performing a motor skill. Give an example of each. The general purpose of experiments using the dual-task procedure is to determine the attention demands and characteristics of the simultaneous performance of two different tasks. Primary task - typically the task of interest, whose performance experimenters are observing in order to assess its attention demands Secondary task - task performed simultaneously with the primary task in dual-task experiments If instructions in the experiment require the participant to pay attention to the primary task so that it is performed as well alone as with the secondary task performance is the basis researchers use to make inferences about the attention demands of the primary task If the experiment does not direct the person to attend primarily to either task, performance on both tasks is compared to performance when each task is performed alone. 2. (a) Describe the width and direction of attention focus options a person has when performing a motor skill. (b) For each type, describe a motor skill situation in which that focus option would be preferred. Width - indicates that our attention can have a broad or narrow focus on environmental information and mental activities Direction - indicates that our attention al thoughts, plans, focus can be external or internal: attention may be focused on cues in the environment or on internr problem- solving activities. Example: A person needs a broad/external focus to walk successfully through a crowded hallway, but a narrow/external focus to catch a ball 3. Discuss whether a person should focus attention on his or her own movements or on the movement effects. Give an example. a. This question has been answered by researchers with the ACTION EFFECT HYPOTHESIS. Actions are best planned when attention is focused on the outcome. “Look at where you want the ball to go and aiming will follow accordingly.” b. Proposes that learning and performing skills are optimized when attention directed at intended outcome of action rather than movements involved i. i. Example: When teaching ballet, have student focus on effect they want to create instead of individuals’ mechanics of each movement. 4. What is the meaning of the term automaticity as it relates to attention and the performance of motor skills? Give an example. a. Indication that a person performs a skill or engages in info-processing activity without demands on attention capacity.
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b. Should be viewed on a continuum rather than yes/no possession. c. People acquire automaticity with practice, resulting in an acquired degree of automaticity i.
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