N5315 Inflammation and Altered Immunity Core Knowledge Study Objectives with Advanced Organizers (1) - N5315 Advanced Pathophysiology Inflammation

N5315 Inflammation and Altered Immunity Core Knowledge Study Objectives with Advanced Organizers (1)

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N5315 Advanced Pathophysiology Inflammation, Altered Immunity and Infection Core Concepts Objectives with Advanced Organizers Natural immunity (Innate Resist/Immunity): exists prior to exposure, based on genotypes and species, nonspecific barriers to infection such as skin, mucous memb., NK cells proteins (compliment, cytokines). Involves inflammation and phagocytosis. Does not improve after exposure. Function: kill and activate acquired immunity. Cells: phagocytic cells, APC, NK and compliment. Phagocytic cells Neutrophils are present during acute inflammation and are responsible for engulfing microbes and kills them by using a cytoplasmic myeloperoxidase which is toxic to pathogens. Macrophages are derived from monocytes, which leave the blood stream and differentiate in tissues. Dendritic cells engulf antigens in the epithelia of the skin, GI and respiratory tracts. APC: Dendritic, macrophages, Bcells APC ingest and process antigens. The peptides are loaded on to their major histocompatibility complex II molecule and are presented to the Tcell. Natural Killer Cells contain granules that attack and kill virus-infected or cancerous cells. Complement is comprised of a collection of proteins which are formed by a cascade of events. It is not important to know the steps in the production of the complement system. Ultimately, they form the membrane attack complex and lyse a pathogen’s cell membrane. Acquired Immunity: Improves with repeat exposure. Specific. Active acquired immunity is produced by the host after exposure to an antigen or immunization. Passive acquired immunity via transfer of antibodies or T-cells. Natural passive immunity – mother to fetus IgG passes through placenta & milk Artificial passive immunity – antibodies given to someone to treat rabies/tetanus/Hep/snake bites. Immediate but short lasting – 2 wks Humoral immunity = think B cells. Viral infections/toxin induced disease/ disease by pneumococci/meningococci/Hemophilus Cell-medicated immunity = think T cells, against cells infected w bacteria/viruses. Defends against cancer/tumors/Fungai. Organ transplantation rejection. Organs of the Immune System Review The bone marrow: responsible for the production of immune cells and the maturation of B cells Thymus: provides a site for T -cell differentiation, maturation and selection.
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Spleen is a lymphoid organ and contains blood filled sinuses which filter antigens and cells from the blood. Red pulp :location of red blood cell storage and turnover. White pulp is the site where immune cell interaction occurs. Antigen presenting cells present antigens to the lymphocytes in the spleen which triggers the immune response. Persons who have had their spleen removed or have a nonfunctional spleen (sickle cell disease) are at an increased risk for infection, particularly infections caused by streptococcal bacteria . These individuals require the pneumococcal vaccine.
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  • Fall '15
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