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N5315 Advanced PathophysiologyInflammation, Altered Immunity and Infection Core Concepts Objectives with Advanced Organizers Natural immunity (Innate Resist/Immunity): exists prior to exposure, based on genotypes andspecies, nonspecific barriers to infection such as skin, mucous memb., NK cells proteins (compliment, cytokines). Involves inflammation and phagocytosis. Does not improve after exposure. Function: kill and activate acquired immunity. Cells: phagocytic cells, APC, NK and compliment.Phagocytic cells ▪ Neutrophilsare present during acute inflammation and areresponsible for engulfing microbes and kills them by using acytoplasmic myeloperoxidase which is toxic to pathogens.▪ Macrophagesare derived from monocytes, which leave the bloodstream and differentiate in tissues.▪ Dendriticcells engulf antigens in the epithelia of the skin, GI andrespiratory tracts.APC: Dendritic, macrophages, BcellsAPC ingest and process antigens. The peptides are loaded on to theirmajor histocompatibility complex II molecule and are presented to the Tcell.Natural Killer Cellscontain granules that attack and kill virus-infected orcancerous cells.Complementis comprised of a collection of proteins which are formed bya cascade of events. It is not important to know the steps in the productionof the complement system. Ultimately, they form the membrane attackcomplex and lyse a pathogen’s cell membrane.Acquired Immunity:Improves with repeat exposure. Specific.Active acquired immunityis produced by the host after exposure to an antigen or immunization.Passive acquired immunity via transfer of antibodies or T-cells. Natural passive immunity – mother to fetus IgG passes through placenta & milkArtificial passive immunity –antibodies given to someone to treat rabies/tetanus/Hep/snake bites. Immediate but short lasting – 2 wksHumoral immunity= thinkBcells. Viral infections/toxin induced disease/ disease by pneumococci/meningococci/HemophilusCell-medicated immunity =think Tcells, against cells infected w bacteria/viruses. Defends against cancer/tumors/Fungai. Organ transplantation rejection. Organs of the Immune System ReviewThe bone marrow: responsible for the production of immune cells and thematuration of B cellsThymus: provides a site for T -cell differentiation, maturation and selection.
Spleenis a lymphoid organ and contains blood filled sinuses which filter antigens and cells from the blood.Red pulp:location of red blood cell storage and turnover. White pulpis the site where immune cell interaction occurs. Antigen presenting cellspresent antigens to the lymphocytes inthe spleen which triggers the immune response. Persons who have had their spleenremoved or have a nonfunctional spleen (sickle cell disease) are at an increased risk for infection, particularly infections caused by streptococcal bacteria. These individuals require the pneumococcal vaccine.