_33-2005AnnualRev-new

_33-2005AnnualRev-new - Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 2005....

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Unformatted text preview: Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 2005. 7:10550 doi: 10.1146/annurev.bioeng.7.060804.100340 Copyright c 2005 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved First published online as a Review in Advance on April 8, 2005 B IOCHEMISTRY AND B IOMECHANICS OF C ELL M OTILITY Song Li, 1 Jun-Lin Guan, 2 and Shu Chien 3 1 Department of Bioengineering and Center for Tissue Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720; Joint Bioengineering Program, University of California, San Francisco/Berkeley, California 94720; email: song_li@berkeley.edu 2 Department of Molecular Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 3 Departments of Bioengineering and Medicine and Whitaker Institute of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, San Diego, California 92093 Key Words cell migration, extracellular matrix, mechanical forces, mechanotransduction, protrusion, signal transduction, traction force Abstract Cell motility is an essential cellular process for a variety of biological events. The process of cell migration requires the integration and coordination of complex biochemical and biomechanical signals. The protrusion force at the leading edge of a cell is generated by the cytoskeleton, and this force generation is controlled by multiple signaling cascades. The formation of new adhesions at the front and the release of adhesions at the rear involve the outside-in and inside-out signaling mediated by integrins and other adhesion receptors. The traction force generated by the cell on the extracellular matrix (ECM) regulates cell-ECM adhesions, and the counter force exerted by ECM on the cell drives the migration. The polarity of cell migration can be amplified and maintained by the feedback loop between the cytoskeleton and cell-ECM adhesions. Cell migration in three-dimensional ECM has characteristics distinct from that on two-dimensional ECM. The migration of cells is initiated and modulated by external chemical and mechanical factors, such as chemoattractants and the mechanical forces acting on the cells and ECM, as well as the surface density, distribution, topography, and rigidity of the ECM. CONTENTS INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 CELL PROTRUSION DURING CELL MIGRATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 Molecular Mechanisms of Cell Protrusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 Cell Protrusion Force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 ROLE OF CELL-ECM ADHESION IN CELL MOTILITY AND THE GENERATION OF TRACTION FORCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 Cell-ECM Adhesions in Cell Motility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 Traction Force at Focal Adhesions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 EFFECTS OF EXTERNAL FACTORS ON CELL MOTILITY...
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_33-2005AnnualRev-new - Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 2005....

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