1 Lectures 18-20: Characterization of Cells and Tissues Reading Materials: Chapter 8-9 in the reference book #1 1. Microscopy : (1) Using light wave: Light microscopy (0.2 um resolution), fluorescence microscopy, time-lapse microscopy, confocal microscopy; mostly used for cell characterization Sample preparation/labeling Immunostaining: primary antibody, and secondary antibodies with labeling (e.g., Fluorescein) Green Fluorescence protein (GFP) labeling: as reporter or tag Semiconductor nanocrystals: “quantum dots” (e.g., CdSe/ZnS, anti-bleaching) (2) Using electrons: scanning electron microscopy (gold coating; electron beams; 0.1 nm resolution); mostly used for the characterization of topography and structure of biomaterials 2. Gene expression analysis Quantitative polymerase chain reaction Northern blotting DNA microarray 3. Protein expression analysis Immunoblotting Microscopy Flow cytometry ELISA: Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) is a useful and powerful method
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