MSE-BioE+118+2011+L_1 - MSE/BioE C118 Biological...

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Unformatted text preview: MSE/BioE C118 Biological Performance of Materials Lecturers: Hayley Lam & Shyam Patel GSIs: Alec Cerchiari, Riley Reese, Felicia Svedlund Outline Course Overview • Course Overview • Course Requirements • Grading Biomaterials their use and performance • Definition of biomaterials • Biomaterials used in medicine and biotechnology • Frontiers in Biomaterials • Biocompatibility vs. biological performance MSE/BioE C118 Helpful information 1. What does the registrar call you? 2. What should we call you? 3. UC assigned email address? 4. Class standing (UC residence)? 5. Your major? 6. BioE courses you have taken? 7. MSE courses you have taken? 8. MCB or cell biology course you have taken? 9. What prerequisite courses have you not taken? (Prereqs: E 45; Chem C130/MCB C100A or BioE C105B or equivalent; BioE 102 & 104 recommended) 10. Anything else we should know about you? 11. Anything you would like to know about us? MSE/BioE 118- Biological Performance of Materials Departments of Materials Science and Engineering, and Bioengineering Instructor: Office Hours: GSIs: Web page: Hayley Lam & Shyam Patel hayleylam@berkeley.edu HL: Tu 2-4pm. SP: Fr 9-11am. Alec Cerchiari, alec@berkeley.edu, OH: M 9-11am Riley Reese, rjr@berkeley.edu, OH: Th 9-11am Felicia Svedlund, felicia.svedlund@berkeley.edu, OH: W 2-4pm https://bspace.berkeley.edu/portal Hours per week: 3 hours of lecture (two 1.5 hr periods), 1 hour of discussion (4 units) Prerequisites: E 45; Chem C130/MCB C100A or BioE C105B or equivalent; BioE 102 & 104 recommended Brief Course Description: This course is intended to give students the opportunity to expand their knowledge of topics related to biomedical materials selection and design. Structure-property relationships of biomedical materials and their interaction with biological systems will be addressed. Applications of the concepts developed include blood-materials compatibility, biomimetic materials, hard and soft tissue-materials interactions, drug delivery, tissue engineering and biotechnology. MSE/BioE 118- Biological Performance of Materials Departments of Materials Science and Engineering, and Bioengineering UNDERGRADUATE DEGREE PROGRAM OBJECTIVES The course provides the necessary background in biomaterials science and engineering to upper-division undergraduates to prepare them for other upperdivision courses within the College of Engineering that focus on processing or production of specific types of materials used in biological and medical applications. ASSESSMENT OF STUDENT PROGRESS TOWARD COURSE OBJECTIVES • Approximately 6 major problem sets each semester designed to provide immediate reinforcement and utilization of concepts presented in lecture. • One 80-minute mid-term examination • Final examination • Final presentation based on the group design project (students are scored on both their individual contribution and the groups overall performance). • Final report based on the group design project (students are scored on both their individual contribution and the groups overall performance). Important Dates Selection of topics for project Project Outline due Midterm Exam 9/30 10/13 10/18 Presentations Student presentations (Depends on final class size) 12/6-12/9 Paper due Final Exam (Group 9) 12/9 12/14/10 8-11AM GRADING: Homework and class participation Exams (Midterm 20%, Final 25%) Project Outline Project Lecture Project Paper 15% 45% 5% 10% 25% 100% What are biomaterials? A material, viable or non-viable Not a drug Not an organism (e.g. cell, bacteria) • A material intended to interface with biological systems (e.g., macromolecules, proteins, cells) to evaluate, treat, augment, or replace any tissue, organ, or function of the body •Focus of this course is on non-viable or synthetic materials in applications where interactions between “biological systems” and these materials dominate performance • Biomaterials are intended to function in situations exposed to biological systems without adversely affecting the system ✴ Heal biology - regenerative medicine ✴ Study biology ✴ Mimic biology ✴ Biology to make materials ✴ Control biology ✴ Monitor biology Stupp et al., MRS Bulletin, 30(11), 2005 Materials to Heal Biology Regenerative Medicine How old is this implant? A. 500 years old B. 2000 years old C. 1000 years old D. 4000 years old Cruzby et al. Nature, 1998 1597 - Nose Reconstruction 1667 - Blood Transfusion (animal to human) 1881 - First Temp Skin Graft 1888 - First use of Contact Lenses 1951 - First artificial heart Valve implanted 1957 - Cochlear Implant Developed 1969 - Total Artificial Heart implanted 1993 - Left Ventricular Assist Device approved by FDA 2000 - Prototype artificial Pancreas Implanted Biomaterials: from Implants to Regenerative Medicine PERFORMANCE Challenges  Fundamental design rules governing material chemical and physical properties  Deciphering cues (physical & chemical) that control cell differentiation and commitment  Translation from in vitro experiments to pre-clinical in vivo studies  Translation from pre-clinical in vivo studies to clinical trials  Regulatory hurdles and approvals: combination products device/drug Biomaterial Biological Performance Properties Mechanical Optical Electrical Magnetic Chemical Biological Thermal PERFORMANCE Structure Atomic Intermolecular bonding Molecular assembly Amorphous/Crystalline Processing Cold working Pressure sintering Extrusion What materials are used to make synthetic vascular grafts? Are these the best materials? Thoratec Corp. Key Components of Tissue Engineering  Host cells capable of differentiation and organization into tissue specific architectures  Growth factors and morphogenetic proteins  Matrix that supports cell attachment, growth, and differentiation A. Mikos, Princ. Tiss. Eng, 2nd Ed., 2000 Whang, K., et al., Polymer, 36, 837, 1995 Langer & Vancanti, Science, 260, 920 (1993) Ratner 2.3 Stupp et al., MRS Bulletin, 30(11), 2005 Materials to Study Biology Manipulation of Cells In Vitro Tourovskaia et al., Langmuir, 19, 4754 (2003) Tourovskaia et al., Langmuir, 19, 4754 (2003) Materials to Control Biology Ligand Presentation & Integrin Clustering Material Architecture Material Mechanics Saha, K., et al., Current Opinion in Chemical Biology, 11 (4), 381-387 (2007) Biological Performance vs. Biocompatibility Properties Mechanical Optical Electrical Magnetic Chemical Biological Thermal PERFORMANCE Structure Processing Atomic Intermolecular bonding Molecular assembly Amorphous/Crystalline Cold working Pressure sintering Extrusion Intravascular Stents Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty (PTA) Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty (PTCA) Abbott/Guidant MULTI-LINK PENTA® Coronary Stent System What happens to this implant when it is placed in the body? Expanded Palmaz Stent (Johnson &Johnson) Stent Surface proteins in solution Biomaterial • Fouling of materials • Cell behavior • Host response Δt Biomaterial Host Response: the response of a biological environment to a material Material Response: reaction of material to the biological environment Host Response Initial Events Inflammation Immunological Enzymatic/biochemical Bacterial Neoplasia (cancer) Corrosion Fatigue Fracture Degradation Adsorption Absorption Resorption Material Response Biological Performance vs. Biocompatibility* Biocompatibility The ability of a material to perform with an appropriate host response in a specific situation The term is defective in that it describes a harmonious or “good” interaction with the biological system without an absolute reference. Biological Performance The interaction between materials and biological systems. A neutral term that captures both the host response and material response *Black, Chapter 1 Next Week: Chemistry & Structure of Polymers Useful Book Chapters: 2.4, 2.5.6, 3.5 ...
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