AP-Bio-HW-20-091204 (1)

AP-Bio-HW-20-091204 (1) - Homework#20 Chapter 20(due Friday...

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Homework #20 : Chapter 20 (due Friday ) ONE Concept Map: 10 points Objectives DNA Cloning 1. Explain how advances in recombinant DNA technology have helped scientists study the eukaryotic genome. It allowed scientist to introduce desired genes to manipulate them for spesific traits. An example is gene cloning enable scientists to prepare multiple identical copies of gene- sized pieces of DNA, allowing scientists to produce protein product and to create copies of the gene. 2. Describe the natural function of restriction enzymes and explain how they are used in recombinant DNA technology. Restriction enzymes cut DNA molecules at spesific locations, and in nature, they cut foreign DNA to keep out phages and bacteria. These can be used to isolate desirable genes and reinsert them back into the DNA. 3. Explain how the creation of sticky ends by restriction enzymes is useful in producing a recombinant DNA molecule. These extensions can form hydrogen-bonded base pairs with complementary single- stranded stretches (sticky ends) on other DNA molecules cut with the same restriction enzyme. 4. Outline the procedures for cloning a eukaryotic gene in a bacterial plasmid. First the vector and gene source of DNA is isolated. Then DNA is inserted into the vector. The human DNA fragments are mixed with the cut plasmids, and base-pairing takes place between complementary sticky ends. Then the recombinant plasmids are mixed with bacteria that are lacZ−, unable to hydrolyze lactose. The transformed bacteria are plated on a solid nutrient medium containing ampicillin and a molecular mimic of lactose called X-gal. Lastly, the Cell clones with the right gene are identified. 5. Describe techniques that allow identification of recombinant cells that have taken up a gene of interest. Nucleic acid hybridization depends on base-pairing between the gene and a complementary sequence, a nucleic acid probe, on another nucleic acid molecule. 6. Define and distinguish between genomic libraries using plasmids, phages, and cDNA. A complete set of recombinant plasmid clones, each carrying copies of a particular segment from the initial genome, forms a genomic library. In phages, Fragments of foreign DNA can be spliced to create a genome using a restriction enzyme and DNA ligase. A cDNA library represents that part of a cell’s genome that was transcribed in the starting cells, helpful in studying genes responsible for spesific fucntions of a cell.
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7. Describe the role of an expression vector. An expression vector is a cloning vector containing a highly active prokaryotic promoter,
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AP-Bio-HW-20-091204 (1) - Homework#20 Chapter 20(due Friday...

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