AP-Bio-HW-17-091120 (1)

AP-Bio-HW-17-091120 (1) - Homework #17 : Chapter 17 (due...

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Homework #17 : Chapter 17 (due Mon) ONE Concept Map: 10 points Gene to Proteins Objectives The Connection Between Genes and Proteins 1. Explain why dwarf peas have shorter stems than tall varieties. lack gene gibberellin stimulates elongation of stems Dwarf pea plants lack a functioning copy of the gene that specifies the synthesis of a key protein, gibberellin, which stimulates the normal elongation of stems. 2. Explain the reasoning that led Archibald Garrod to first suggest that genes dictate phenotypes through enzymes. inherited disease= inability to synthesize enzyme alkeptonuria results from absence of enzyme He suggested that the symptoms of an inherited disease reflect a person’s inability to synthesize a particular enzyme, referring to such disease as inborn errors of metabolism. He reasoned alkaptonuria, a hereditary disease, was caused by the absence of an enzyme that breaks down a specific substrate, alkapton. 3. Describe Beadle and Tatum’s experiments with Neurospora and explain the contribution they made to our understanding of how genes control metabolism. mutants that differed 20 amino acids one gene–one enzyme hypothesis They bombarded Neurospora with X-rays and screened the survivors for mutants that differed in their nutritional needs. Beadle and Tatum identified mutants that could not survive on minimal medium, because they were unable to synthesize certain essential molecules from the minimal ingredients, but can when on a diet with all 20 amino acids. This all provided strong evidence for the one gene–one enzyme hypothesis. 4. Distinguish between the “one gene–one enzyme” hypothesis and the “one gene–one polypeptide” hypothesis and explain why the original hypothesis was changed. enzyme- unfinished hypothesis polypeptide- proteins of polypeptides The one gene-one enzyme hypothesis is the idea that genes act through the production of enzymes , with each gene responsible for producing a single enzyme that in turn affects a single step in a metabolic pathway . They realized not all proteins are enzymes and decided to call it one gene one protein. THey then decided that many proteins are composed of several polypeptides, each of which has its own gene, and changed its name to one gene–one polypeptide hypothesis. 5. Explain how RNA differs from DNA. RNA has uracil DNA template for RNA
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RNA has ribose RNA contains ribose and substitutes uracil for thymine. DNA is used to make a template for the synthesis for a RNA strand in transcription. RNA then goes through translation on the ribosome. 6. Briefly explain how information flows from gene to protein. DNA transcribed to RNA RNA template for ribosome ribosome produce amino chains DNA is transcribed into mRNA which traveles to ribosomes. From there the RNA is used as a template for the ribosomes to produce amino acids and order them into chains. 7. Distinguish between transcription and translation.
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AP-Bio-HW-17-091120 (1) - Homework #17 : Chapter 17 (due...

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