AP-Bio-HW-19-091204

AP-Bio-HW-19-091204 - Ap Biology Period 3 Class 18 Munshani...

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Ap Biology Period 3 Munshani, Kunal Class # 18 Date Completed: 12/18/2011 Homework #19 : Chapter 19 (due Mon ) ONE Concept Map: 10 points Objectives The Structure of Eukaryotic Chromatin 1. Compare the structure and organization of prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes. euk- genomes bigger cell specialization chromatin Eukaryotes have their genomes packed neatly into a set of multiple chromosomes, with the chromosomes taking on the shape of a characteristic X or a Y. Their DNA is found in a membrane bound nucleus, and kept separate from the cytoplasm. Prokaryotes on the other hand have usually have just one circular chromosome that's found in the cell cytoplasm. Other regions you find prokaryotic DNA is in smaller circular structures called plasmids. Other regions you find eukaryotic DNA is in mitochondria. 2. Describe the current model for progressive levels of DNA packing in eukaryotes. Histones nucleosomes looped domain DNA and histones are wrapped into nucleosomes. those are coiled into chromatin fibers. those are turned into looped domains attached to scaffolding proteins. This is condensed into chromosomes. 3. Explain how histones influence folding in eukaryotic DNA.
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Ap Biology Period 3 Munshani, Kunal Class # 18 Date Completed: 12/18/2011 Histones positive DNA negative Histones have a high proportion of positively charged amino acids and bind tightly to negatively charged DNA. 4. Distinguish between heterochromatin and euchromatin. hetero- interphase chromatin euchro- true chromatin heterochromatin is the condensed form of DNA, found when it is arranged in chromosomes for cell division and the like. however heterochromatin is not able to be transcribed for protein production. euchromatin allows mRNA molecules to transcribe the amino acid sequence coded for by that particular portion of DNA, and thus allows protein synthesis to occur. The Control of Gene Expression 5. Explain the relationship between differentiation and differential gene expression. cell dif- many different types dif gene expression- same genome dif gene ellular differentiation is the divergence in form and function as cells in a multicellular organism specialize. Differential gene expression, the expression of different genes by cells with the same genome. 6. Describe at what level gene expression is generally controlled. can be turned on, off, accelerated, slowed down gene expression is transcription Gene expressions generally controlled are mostly found in the transcription step in both prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells.
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Ap Biology Period 3 Munshani, Kunal Class # 18 Date Completed: 12/18/2011 7. Explain how DNA methylation and histone acetylation affect chromatin structure and the regulation of transcription.
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