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Unformatted text preview: 1 The endocrine system Chapter Readings 74 (pp. 881-886) - Intro 75 Pituitary, H-P-X, GH 76 HPT 77 - HPA 79 (p. 955-969) PTH and Calcitonin 2 Lecture outline I. Overview of basic hormone action A. Receptors B. Fate of hormones II . Hormone classification A. Steroid 1. Characteristics 2. Mode of action B. Protein/peptide/amines 1. Characteristics 2. Examples of amines 3. Mode of action III. Trigger mechanisms for hormone release A. Neural B. Humoral C. Hormonal : H-P-X axis 1. Review of H-P relationship a. Neural and hormonal release b. Hypothalamic-hypophyseal connections 3 IV. H-P-T axis A. Negative feedback mechanisms B. Disruption of pathwaywhat happens to hormone levels? V. Thyroid Gland A. Microscopic structure/follicles B. Synthesis and secretion of TH C. Actions of TH D. Disorders of the thyroid gland 1. Diagnosing the problem 2. Hyperthyroidism 3. Hypothyroidism E. Review of thyroid pathology 2 4 VI. Adrenal glands: H-P-A- axis A. Anatomical review B. Adrenal cortex 1. Glucocorticoids 2. Mineralcorticoids a. Aldosterone (TBC - unit 4) C. Corticosterone follows HPA axis neg. feedback control D. Effects of corticosterone E. Pathophysiology of HPA 1. Deficiencies a. Addisons- primary adrenal insufficiency b. Secondary adrenal insufficiency (pit. problem) 2. Excess a. Cushings disease (Pit is problem) b. Cushings syndrome (ectopic tumor/iatrogenic) i. Primary hyperadrenalism (tumor on adrenal glands) 3. CAH- excess and deficiency VII. Growth Hormone VII. Parathyroid Hormone/Calcium regulation http://www.megalo-media.com/art/ccolor3.html Made by the gland s cells, possibly stored, then released Circulate throughout the body vasculature, fluids Influences only specific tissues: target cells that have receptor for hormone A hormone can have different effects on different target cells : depends on the receptor Effects depend on the preprogrammed response of the target cells; hormones are merely molecular triggers Some hormones are permissive for the actions of another (GH needs TH) Ultimate goal: alter cell activity by altering protein activity through gene expression or through altering phosphorylation What would happen if there was a mutation in the gene code for a particular hormone, or a defect in the cells machinery to make the hormone? I. Overview of basic hormone action 6 What is a receptor? It is a protein made by the target cell (protein synthesis, gene expression) Three locations where it can be found: inserted into plasma membrane , in cytoplasm , or in the nucleoplasm Active site fits the hormone Acts to convert or transduce the signal into a response What would happen if there were a gene defect in the DNA code for a receptor?...
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This note was uploaded on 01/21/2012 for the course BIO 12 taught by Professor Pires during the Spring '11 term at Saddleback.
- Spring '11