appc - C Appendix Windows 2000 The Microsoft Windows...

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Unformatted text preview: C Appendix Windows 2000 The Microsoft Windows operating system is a 32-bit preemptive multitasking operating system for Intel Pentium and later microprocessors. The successor to the Windows NT operating system, it was previously named Windows NT Version 5.0. Key goals for the system are portability, security, Portable Oper- ating System Interface (POSIX or IEEE Std. 1003.1) compliance, multiprocessor support, extensibility, international support, and compatibility with MS-DOS and Microsoft Windows applications. In this appendix, we discuss the key goals for this system, the layered architecture of the system that makes it so easy to use, the file system, networks, and the programming interface. C.1 History In the mid-1980s, Microsoft and IBM cooperated to develop the OS/2 operating system, which was written in assembly language for single-processor Intel 80286 systems. In 1988, Microsoft decided to make a fresh start and to develop a new technology (or NT) portable operating system that supported both the OS/2 and POSIX application programming interfaces (APIs). In October 1988, Dave Cutler, the architect of the DEC VAX/VMS operating system, was hired and given the charter of building this new operating system. Originally, the team planned for NT to use the OS/2 API as its native environment, but during development, it was changed to use the 32-bit Windows API (or Win32 API), reflecting the popularity of Windows 3.0. The first versions of NT were Windows NT 3.1 and Windows NT 3.1 Advanced Server. (At that time, 16-bit Windows was at Version 3.1.) Windows NT 4.0 adopted the Windows 95 user interface and incorporated Internet web-server and web-browser software. In addition, user-interface routines and graphics code were moved into the kernel to improve performance, with the side effect of decreased system reliability. Although previous versions of NT had been ported to other microprocessor architectures, Windows discontinues that practice due to marketplace factors. Thus, portability now refers to portability among Intel architecture systems. Windows uses a microkernel architecture (like Mach), so enhancements can be made to one part of the operating system without 901 902 Appendix C Windows 2000 greatly affecting other parts. With the addition of Terminal Services, Windows is a multiuser operating system. Windows was released in 2000 and incorporated significant changes. It adds an X.500-based directory service, better networking support, support for plug-and-play devices, a new file system with support for hierarchical storage, and a distributed file system, as well as support for more processors and more memory. There are four versions of Windows. The Professional version is intended for desktop use. The other three are server versions: Server, Advanced Server, and Datacenter Server. These differ primarily in the amount of memory and number of processors that they support. They use the same kernel and operating-system code, but Windows Server and Advanced Server versions...
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This note was uploaded on 01/21/2012 for the course COMPUTER CSCI 593 taught by Professor Hamnes during the Spring '11 term at Aston University.

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appc - C Appendix Windows 2000 The Microsoft Windows...

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